Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind

20 Mar - 17 Apr 2017
Go back to E-Discussion on the 2017 ECOSOC Theme

Published on 16 March 2017 in E-Discussion on the 2017 ECOSOC Theme

  • How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?
  • How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 
  • What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

Photo Credit: UN Photo/Tobin Jones

Comments (197)

Pedro Conceição • Director of Strategic Policy - Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, UNDP at United Nations Development Programme from United States Moderator

Week 1 & 2 Summary (March 21-April 4)

Dear participants,

I would like to thank you very much for sharing your research, experiences and perspectives to the debate on eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind. This lively and rich discussion has touched upon many of the key issues to be discussed in the upcoming ECOSOC session.

For those who are just joining the e-discussion, you will find below a summary of the comments posted during the first two weeks. If you had not done so already, I encourage you to have your say and join the discussion. 

This report summarizes the first two weeks of the global e-discussion for Thematic Window 1 on eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind, with over 120 responses from all regions of the world.

Leaving no one behind in the effort to eradicate poverty is to return to the essence of our humanity. Even when growth lifts millions out of poverty, many will be left behind unless explicit policies are implemented with this aim. Yet poverty reduction efforts are not likely to be sustainable unless they tackle the underlying drivers of poverty such as exclusion, vulnerability, and environmental degradation.

1. How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?

The following were key themes related to the necessary adjustment of policies to more effectively contribute to SDG 1 and leaving no one behind.

Strengthen support for inclusive social and economic empowerment

  • Poverty is closely interlinked with education, health and environmental sustainability. In line with the 2030 Agenda, governments need to provide comprehensive approaches across sectors, bringing together relevant ministries to addressing cross-cutting issues in a more coordinated manner. School lunch programmes were offered by a few participants as a practical example of bringing some of these objectives together.
  • Education was widely cited as the primary means for poverty eradication. Government support should address multiple and interrelated forms of discrimination, and provide quality education and skills training to ensure the full, equitable and effective participation of all
  • Promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment was also highlighted as a central strategy for eradicating poverty, including through access to education, financing, decision-making, formalized employment, child care, and protection from violence
  • Public social protection systems need to be expanded in many countries in Africa and they need to be more effectively managed to ensure program benefits reach their targets.
  • In rural areas there is a need for greater investment in basic infrastructure (roads, housing, electricity) to bridge inequality gaps.
  • Special attention should be paid to people with disabilities. Disability should be mainstreamed in all relevant development policies and practices to equalise opportunities and facilitate meaningful participation
  • Agriculture remains one of the largest sources of income and employment for rural families, therefore support to small farmers and other informal sectors should be an important part of the solution in many countries
  • Private sector should be incentivized to become part of the solution. Government incentives can support and promote entrepreneurship. They can also reward products/companies that produce a positive social contribution along their life cycle, tracks direct and indirect effects on increasing and reducing poverty (e.g. desertification, minimum wage)
  • Co-operatives also offer a more value-based/people-centred model that can be important contributors to eradicating poverty. National governments could support the development of cooperatives as a tool for local communities to address their own needs and to help ensure that the wealth generated by economic activity remains in the communities.

Strengthen democracy through inclusive education and access to information

  • Government transparency and democracy are important factors to ensure the provision of health, education other government services for equitable human development. Without access to reliable information it is difficult to hold governments accountable to deliver services equitably. Leaving no one behind is also therefore about ensuring that no one is left without access to information and knowledge of their rights and the possibility to act upon this knowledge.
  • Adult education and literacy not only have to be focused on acquiring the skills that will be in demand for labour markets of the future, but must be oriented towards the construction of full citizenship, especially for indigenous, Afro-descendant and rural women. Special attention and educational services must be paid to at-risk youth (89 million youth 12-24 years old are out of school in Sub-Saharan Africa).

Strengthen governance and public management including at local level, address corruption

  • Many drivers for gaps in social provision have their origins in the lack of implementation and political will, insufficient follow-up, monitoring, accountability, ineffective institutional administrations and lack of transparency. While sufficient regulations and institutions are in place in many countries, multilevel and multi-actor coordination are still lacking.
  • Local communities should be engaged in the identification of needs to understand the specific points of departure for poverty reduction and to inspire and promote their own unique innovations which can help build feasible solutions to local poverty.
  • Local civil society organizations play an important role in delivering a broad spectrum of poverty reduction and social services. Governments should offer technical and financial resources to support local CSO service providers more effectively. 
  • Tackling corruption at all levels is key to ensuring government services are delivered more equitably and resources are channelled more efficiently.

 

2. How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 

With respect to measuring poverty and tracking social needs the following lessons were offered in the discussion:

  • Disaggregated poverty mapping is a precondition for eradicating poverty and leaving on one behind. However, in many countries the data are incomplete or several years old. Extensive and deliberate poverty mapping efforts may be necessary in post-conflict countries or countries with large geographical regions with sparse population
  • Civil society groups who deliver social programs and who have first-hand knowledge of issues and needs at a local level are an essential part of successful a policy-making agenda.
  • Poverty data should be compiled and reported by an agency which is independent of the state which captures data from the ground, from institutions including CSOs and local government agencies
  • The targeting of social programmes must be adapted to a local level and be relevant within that context to ensure no one will be left behind.
  • Similarly, implementation of programmes should also be locally driven to sufficiently assess and address needs (programmes may be based on global or national priorities, but it is better to implement and set targets locally)
  • Third-party monitoring and evaluation of the distribution of social benefits is an effective mechanism to ensure fairness and that no one is left behind.
  • Partnership arrangements to achieve desired objectives in a range of areas is critical in formulating and delivering national and regional policies, involving consultation with key stakeholders, including civil society. 
  • The poor can offer a wealth of innovative solutions to sustainable development, but they may not have the formal education or the visibility to have their ideas supported.
  • It is important to ensure reliable sources for reporting on the identification of needs at local levels, and have checks and balances to scrutinize and prevent some groups from capturing resources and leaving others behind.
  • Following the identification of target groups at community level, a needs analysis survey and problem ranking of these groups should be conducted to assess vulnerability factors and service provision. Ensure use of baseline studies, mid-term reviews and final assessments.
  • The media could play a more important role in informing citizens about their rights related to social programs and to help ensure everyone is aware.

 

3. What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

  • The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), supports a coordinated, effective and multi-sectoral attack on poverty in all its dimensions. Several countries are using their National MPI as a tool of policy coordination across sectors, programmes, and levels of government. The MPI is used to align government instruments (budget allocation, targeting, programme and policy design, and so on) with the aim to reduce poverty in all its dimensions.
  • The disaggregation of data is essential to achieve the no one left behind principle of the SDGs. EvalGender+ network, UN Women and partners have produced: Guidance to Evaluate SDGs with an equity-focused and gender-responsive lens
  • Extensive government databases mapping millions of social programme recipients, such as Brazil’s single registry system, if made accessible, can provide a rich data source for policy research, such as microsimulations to quantify potential comparative policy impacts
  • Social registers should make intelligent use of data, with relational analysis that can point to bottlenecks in poor access to distributive measures (Health, Education, Income, etc.)
  • Quotas can be an effective mechanism to ensure racial, gender inclusion
  • Insurance mechanisms (both public and private) could be strengthened and developed to specifically support at-risk people during economic, social or family health shocks.
  • E-learning and Internet classrooms provide great potential to reach vulnerable communities in developing countries, for instance to provide the knowledge to promote safer childbirth practices. However, that lack of infrastructure and access to electricity and limited knowledge limit the potential impact of these tools.
  • One study presented a methodology for Detecting and Analyzing Social Resilience in the Labour Market
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Asutosh Satpathy • Current President at Resource Development Centre from India

Poverty is sustainable. The interrelated factors of denial of entitlements, lack of accessibility to opportunities, shrinking of traditional skills based entrepreneurship along with ineffective governance and justice system. All these need to be calibrated to make integrated initiative to eradicate poverty.

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Mike Katz

Mineral harvesting or small scale mining of locally available low value minerals and construction materials can be of local economic importance that alleviates poverty in many communities. These can be considered as ' food or cash crops' where food crops provide sustenance such as fertiliser and construction stone and cash crops provide business opportunities such as precious or semi precious metals and gems. Mineral harvesting is a type of land use of a valuable natural resource endowment in attaining economic development and poverty reduction and can be considered along with other more traditional land use sectors such as agriculture in the formulation of land use regulations.

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Brian Geiger • Representative to the UN at Society for Public Health Education from United States

Children and adults with disabilities compose a large and diverse marginalized group, who disproportionately experience poverty. Of particular concerns are SDG Targets 1.1, 1.3 & 1.4 and related indicators. The Center for American Progress (Talk Poverty 2014) recognized that disability is a cause and consequence of poverty. Further, "...The poverty rate for working-age people with disabilities is nearly two and a half times higher than that for people without disabilities. Indeed, recent research finds that half of all working age adults who experience at least one year of poverty have a disability, and nearly two-thirds of those experiencing longer-term poverty have a disability. People with disabilities are also much more likely to experience material hardships—such as food insecurity; inability to pay rent, mortgage, and utilities; or not being able to get needed medical care—than people without disabilities at the same income levels. The same goes for families caring for a child with a disability." 

Census data analyzed by The Center for Poverty Research at UC Davis (2014) revealed a poverty rate of 29% among 18-64 year olds with a disability, as compared to only 12% for those without disabilities in the U.S. The Americans with Disabilities Act was intended to equalize opportunities in "employment — as well as government services and public accommodations, commercial facilities and public transportation" (NPR, 2015); however, the promise is not fulfilled.

Individuals with physical, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral disabilities often have fewer opportunities for challenging education and vocational training leading to successful job placement. In many countries, the social safety net is inadequate for individuals with disabilities who are unable to earn a living wage.

Barriers may be attitudinal, e.g., the misperception that persons with disabilities cannot succeed or require excessive and costly accommodations. Some fear those who speak, move and think differently, such as a woman with cerebral palsy whose gait is awkward, and a young man with autism who self-stimulates when feeling anxious. Attitudinal barriers may result from inexperience living and working with those who have disabilities, leading to fear and discrimination.

In other instances, economic barriers limit accessible transportation, physical modifications to private buildings, and restrict access to primary prevention and treatment programs. Accessible transportation and housing are less often found in rural and poorer communities. Part-time and entry-level jobs rarely provide a living wage and may not offer health insurance benefits. These barriers unnecessarily restrict one's ability to fully participate in society, contributing one's time and talents for betterment of all.

It is more cost effective to provide supportive functional skill training, housing and transportation enabling independent living, self-management and work, as compared to fostering complete dependence on government-funded health and welfare programs. Consider the experience of a 20-year old with a learning disability who enrolls in a residential program teaching functional living skills. Within a couple of years, she successfully demonstrates ability to reside in a shared community residence, cook and clean, manage finances, use public transit, and work a job for competitive wages! This short-term investment reduces her sole reliance on public entitlement programs across the lifespan.

Let us strive for inclusion of all persons with disabilities as valued and capable citizens!

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Recommendation don't just stop with "What needs to be done" it also extends to "How can something be done". ‘What’ recommends ‘the goal’ and ‘how’ recommends with ‘ the guideline’ as in how we could resolve the problem by addressing all the factors of recommendation made.

Summary here just has got the recommendations pertaining to what needs to be done and have excluded on the how’s. It is important that we highlight, cognise and stick to the principles that will help us address all our activities for its purpose making us to accomplish something in real.

Education is widely recommended as a means for poverty eradication but it is to be analysed that have all the educated populace in the present out of poverty? Are they facilitated with employment opportunities and full opportunities that has set them with a life and living up to their expectation. Creating jobs in the market may place them with employment opportunities but what about the populace that would pass out the education system in future? Wouldn’t they be suffering from poverty and unemployment? And even in the employment sector, are everyone employed perfectly, don’t we have problems of under employment, dead end jobs, unequal pays, etc? So just by enabling education that is in the routine is not going to solve the problem but add to the existing problem in a different or invisible form.

Than to ignore the solution, stay settled in the same place and to keep resolving the same problem in different dimension and forms, it is better to take up the solution, progress and resolve problems that comes as its eventuality.

Facilitating the principles of constitution and universal declaration of human rights will solve the problem existing in the present but it isn’t assured that the world will not have any problem at all.but we will definitely not be having the same problem or get stagnated in the very same place, we would be having an evolved world and a different set of problems to address.

So, atleast at this point, we need to include all aspects of recommendations made taking a holistic solution from the discussion made.

"Private sector should be incentivized to become part of the solution. Government incentives can support and promote entrepreneurship. They can also reward products/companies that produce a positive social contribution along their life cycle, tracks direct and indirect effects on increasing and reducing poverty (e.g. desertification, minimum wage)"

Isn’t it necessary for all products and produces to have positive social contribution? Entrepreneurial activities are a part of social contribution, their part in the nation is not primarily their economic contribution. Organisation or company is a place where people with different skills come together for a united purpose and vision. The workings of any organisation, company or entrepreneurial activity must be for its set vision and purpose and not merely for its balance sheet and economies or profits involved. 

Quotas is a violation of principles. It is illegal as it discriminates the populace based on their personal identity. Why do we reserve opportunities for some when the fundamentals assures opportunities for all, individually, for their individuality?

 

"The poor can offer a wealth of innovative solutions to sustainable development, but they may not have the formal education or the visibility to have their ideas supported."

Ideas are to be taken for the conviction it has to serve the purpose and not for the background details of individual offering the ideas. Isn’t it the basic duty of government to support a valid idea or solution and help an individual fulfil his/her social responsibility? Aren’t the government mandated to support and partner with the individual in bringing out the visibility of their ideas? Why do we always concentrate on ‘who says’ than on concentrating ‘what’ is being said? This is why we have leaders, pioneers and intellectuals being made as heroes whereas their contributions and suggestions are left behind. Thomas Edison did not have a formal education, Benjamin franklin was a school dropout, Albert Einstein did not pass the entrance exam to the prestigious Swiss federal institute of technology in the first attempt, Abraham Lincoln left school when he was 12, there are many such accomplishers who deviated from the routine of the world yet was not sidelined from what they had to contribute the world with. Why do we now sideline and confine recognising people and their ability just within the routine we have officiated? Isn’t this a practice of exclusion?

 

Therefore, it is important that we first reform our functioning inline with the principles of UDHR that would bring back the world to its purpose from where we can progress to accomplish the goals and factors recommended, else, however hard or genuine we try resolving the problem would remain a nightmare, as the root cause of problem would be somewhere and we would be working elsewhere. 

Martha Cecilia Londoño López • Investigadora. Grupo Genero y política. Universidad del Valle. Doctoranda Humanidades. Línea de Estudios de Género. at Centro de Estudios de Género, Universidad del Valle from Colombia

Cordial saludo. 

Un saludo desde Colombia. Con relación al tema 1 "Sin dejar a nadie atrás en el esfuerzo de erradicar la pobreza"en el contexto específico de Colombia quisiera presentar varias consideraciones: 

1. Según indica el  informe de la Cepal, "Panorama social de  América Latina, 2015" Colombia es uno de los países con mayor desigualdad  en la región y en el mundo, una desigualdad que supera las cifras presentadas por el DANE (Departamento Nacional de Estadística). Este informe advierte que en la región, Colombia es el país que concentró una mayor parte del ingreso en el 1% mas rico de la población entre 1993 y 2014. 

2. Según Jorge Iván González experto en temas de pobreza y desigualdad, en Colombia no se ha hecho nada para mejorar la distribución de la riqueza; la desigualdad de la concentración de la tierra es del 0,91% y la accionaria es del 0,95%. 

3. Adicional a ello el gasto social en el país es de los mas bajos  y equivale a una cuarta parte de lo que se invierte en la región. 

4. Con el recién firmado "Acuerdo de una paz estable y duradera", se espera revertir algunas de las anteriores situaciones, aunque habría que esperar muchos años para confirmar si esto ha sido posible.

5. Otro gran problema que impide a los colombianos salir de la pobreza, es el alto grado de corrupción que permea las esferas políticas, económicas, sociales tanto a nivel central como territorial. Los recursos del Estado, muchos producto de las regalías, van a parar a manos de unos pocos, que se roban los dineros que iban dirigidos a la educación, a la salud, a la nutrición infantil, al saneamiento básico. A esto se suma el altísimo grado de impunidad que no pone freno a esta situación y por lo tanto la sigue alimentando. 

6. Falta de voluntad política de parte del Estado, en las tres Ramas del Poder Ejecutivo, legislativo y judicial,  en transformar las situaciones de inequidad y de desigualdad que sufren las mujeres y hombres de sectores rurales y de zonas periféricas de las ciudades. Esto se ve reflejado en el Congreso de la República donde senadores y Representantes elegidos para representar intereses regionales,  demuestran falta de interés, compromiso y oídos sordos ante estas demandas. . 

7. La pobreza (multidimensional) alimentada por la creciente discriminación, afecta en gran mayoría a las mujeres, a la población afrocolombiana, a la población indígena, a la población rural y a la población LGTBI que ve reducida cada dia mas sus posibilidades educativas y  laborales.

7. Según el Observatorio de Igualdad de Género de la CEPAL para 2014 las mujeres urbanas sin ingresos propios son el 24.1% mientras los hombres son el 10.4%; en el área rural las mujeres sin ingresos propios representan el 35.2%, mientras que los hombres el 10.4%. A ello se suma que las mujeres en su mayoría son empleadas por cuenta propia, o laboran en oficios informales con lo que no acceden a seguridad social ni en salud, riesgos profesionales y pensiones. La falta de autonomía económica es también un factor  que las pone en alto riesgo de vulnerabilidad frente a la violencia de género y los feminicidios que han alcanzado en los últimos tiempos cifras completamente escandalosas y dramáticas, y en la que los responsables en su gran mayoría quedan impunes por culpa de una justicia lenta e incapaz de reaccionar. (Aunque en Colombia existe un amplio marco normativo que penaliza estos crímenes como la ley 1257 de 2008 "Para prevenir, sancionar y erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres",  la ley 1761 de 2015 "Rosa Elvira Celis" contra las feminicidios y la Ley 1773 de 2016 "Natalia Ponce de León"  que aumenta y penaliza los crímenes con ácido).

8. La brecha salarial entre mujeres y hombres sigue siendo también muy alta, (según el DANE llega a 20,2% menos que los hombres)  aun con la misma o mas alta calificación de parte de las mujeres y para los mismos cargos y aunque se han emprendido iniciativas importantes desde la Consejería Presidencial para la Equidad de la Mujer y el Ministerio del Trabajo  (Programa Nacional de Equidad Laboral con enfoque diferencial de Género) y existe una Ley de igualdad salarial, (Ley 1496 de 2011), la brecha no se cierra. 

9. A todo lo anterior se suma la tendencia demográfica de la región y del mundo que muestra la disminución de las tasas de natalidad y el mayor envejecimiento de la población (tema de la 50 sesión de la CIPD este año, 2017). La gran mayoría de mujeres adultas mayores están viviendo en Colombia situaciones de pobreza extrema e indigencia, y no tienen acceso a seguridad social. Se requiere con urgencia un cambio en los sistemas de Protección social, como lo señala el Informe de Ana Sojo (CEPAL), Protección Social en América Latina. La desigualdad al banquillo. (2017). Es un tema de derechos, de justicia. El Estado, el mercado y las mujeres y los hombres deben hacerse  cargo del  trabajo del cuidado. Es una responsabilidad que no es competencia exclusiva de las mujeres, las cuales dedican gran parte de su vida a esta labor, a diferencia de los hombres. La Ley 1413 de 2010 (Ley de Economía del cuidado) ya lo ha medido en las Encuestas de Uso del tiempo que esta haciendo el DANE.  

10. El creciente conservadurismo y la arremetida contra la mal llamada "ideología de género" que aumenta en el país y en la región, repliega a las mujeres a su condición de amas de casa y madres y profundiza la desigualdad económica haciendo a las mujeres y las niñas mas pobres, sin recursos para lograr su autonomía física, económica y política. 

11. La pobreza afecta también de manera desproporcionada a la población afrodescendiente y a la población indígena en Colombia, la cual es ademas discriminada. Los/las  habitantes de las costas Pacífica y Atlántica (Chocó, Tumaco, Buenaventura, Riohacha, etc) en su gran mayoría  no tienen acceso a agua potable, saneamiento básico, carreteras, puestos de salud, luz, alcantarillado, viviendas dignas. Esto es producto de la discriminación y la corrupción.

12. Gracias a la Corte Constitucional de Colombia y al trabajo adelantado por COLOMBIA DIVERSA ha habido avances en cuestión de derechos para la población LGTBI; sin embargo todavía faltan acciones en que se concreten dichos avances y se elimine la discriminación por motivos de orientación sexual en nuestro país. 

13. Mientras no se solucionen todos estos problemas planteados antes, es imposible pensar en acabar la pobreza y en no dejar a nadie atrás. Es una utopía y un reto y para nuestro país un reto mayor que debe involucrar al Estado en su conjunto, a la empresa privada,  a las instituciones, y a  la sociedad en su conjunto: mujeres y hombres desde sus diversidades¡¡¡¡

 

Martha Cecilia Londoño López. 

 

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Asutosh Satpathy • Current President at Resource Development Centre from India

Poverty and development is very much interwoven with the nature and type of governance. Democratic and inclusive governance may be an effective system against poverty and drive force for inclusive development both at macro and micro levels. .

However we need to highlight on the following steps:

1. Enhancing human resource development through measures on education, health and livelihood generation. Initiating appropriate skill and vocational training programmes in relevance to technological, entrepreneurship development.

2. Developing a registry of skills and skill exchange mechanism to generate appropriate demand and supply in the market.

3. Enabling measures for access to credit and finance from relevant agencies may be for enterprise development.

4. Strengthening farm and non-farm sectors as pivot for employment generation and enterprise development.

Besides macro policy initiatives need to be monitored and implemented at macro-micro continuum to achieve the desired result, i.e. poverty eradication and inclusive development. 

 

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Fran McCrae • Policy Manager at International Co-operative Alliance from United States

To add to the notes on adjusting policies to support co-operatives, I would like to highlight the specific ways in which co-operatives serve as tools for eradicating poverty and how the UN and its Member States could support their development in a practical way.

Firstly, co-operatives can be a self-help solution for people to pull themselves out of poverty when external economic opportunities are scarce. Individuals can identify the gaps in a community (whether that be farmers' access to markets, sources of capital for small-scale loans, a food retail outlet, etc.), and form a co-operative to address that gap in a democratic, principles-driven space. Through the power of the collective, co-operatives allow people to create their own opportunities where few others exist.

Secondly, co-operatives have concern for community at their core, being member-based organizations. Without the pressure of shareholders to focus on the bottom line, co-operatives are businesses that reinvest in their communities while securing the livelihoods of their members. Examples can be seen in how co-operatives reinvest revenues into building schools and educational programs for community members, offering professional development opportunities, or developing more environmentally friendly systems for waste and energy use. This means that co-operatives can not only eradicate poverty among individuals, but also contribute to the greater wealth of communities as a whole.

Regarding the policies that need to be adjusted to achieve the SDGs, it would be ideal for the UN to better include the co-operative movement in global policy making processes to reflect their important economic and social impact, and for UN Member States to review their national/regional legislation related to co-operatives and consider making it easier for co-operatives to be established and to flourish. This would include provisions to make financing more accessible to co-operatives, which is one of their most significant challenges, given the lack of understanding about the unique co-operative identity.

Opening the door for co-operatives to grow is a win-win situation: Member States can see greater achievement of the SDGs, and co-operatives can better meet the needs of their members and communities.

Pedro Conceição • Director of Strategic Policy - Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, UNDP at United Nations Development Programme from United States Moderator

Dear colleagues,

A very warm welcome to Thematic Window I, “Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind”, of the 2017 ECOSOC e-discussion that will take place from 20 March to 12 April 2017. This e-discussion is a unique opportunity for the broader development community to provide critical policy guidance and recommendations for the 2017 ECOSOC session on “Eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions through promoting sustainable development, expanding opportunities and addressing related challenges”.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is about balancing the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental. Underlying the Agenda is the powerful commitment to leave no one behind and to reach those farthest behind first. The level of ambition of Agenda 2030 points to a paradigmatic shift—an aspiration to improve the lives of every single person in the world. The eradication of poverty entails going beyond a narrow focus on providing individuals with the specific needs they lack, towards a systemic view that aims to remove the structural drivers that prevent individuals from living the lives they value. This shift requires looking at development policy in a different light and focusing on tools that advance people’s well-being by tackling the interconnected issues that result in poverty and deprivations.

The experience with the MDGs has shown that growth alone cannot guarantee the eradication of poverty and reduction in inequalities. Even when growth lifts the incomes of millions of people, it does not necessarily lift all incomes, particularly those of the poorest, unless explicit policies are implemented with this aim. It is now evident that poverty reduction efforts are not likely to be sustainable unless the underlying drivers of poverty such as exclusion and vulnerability are tackled.

With this in mind, Thematic Window I on “Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind” addresses a specific aspect of the 2017 ECOSOC theme. As moderator of this thematic window, I wish to present to you the following three questions:

  • How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?
  • How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 
  • What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

We strongly encourage participants to share concrete national, subnational or local experiences so as to effectively guide recommendations for implementation over the coming years. I look forward to a lively and rich discussion in the next few weeks!

Best regards,

Pedro Conceição

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Liz-Rejane Issberner

Poverty eradication? This will requires eradication of wealth as well. Environmental and social justice depends on fighting inequalities, who will support?

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S ann • from United States

How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs? 

The United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda have identified 17 goals with 169 associated targets, and has set Goal 1 and Goal 2, as priorities. The aim of Goal 1 is to end poverty everywhere in all forms by 2030 during the next 15 years, and the aim of Goal 2 is to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.

Based on a report published by the Corner House, a non-governmental organization, the goals, though ambitious, are achievable if corruption alone was eliminated. Specifically, it is reported in the article entitled “Exporting Corruption – Privatisation, Multinationals and Bribery,” that “western businesses pay bribes to the tune of $80 billion a year – roughly the amount the United Nations believes is needed to eradicate global poverty.”   Such greed mimics current politics in the U.S. to increase the wealth of the rich while robbing $800 billion from the poor. 

In addition to eliminating corruption and greed, according to Susan George, in her “A Fate Worse Than Debt,” (New York: Grove Widenfeld, 1990, pp. 1143, 187, 235), structural adjustment policies prescribed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank gravely contributes to poverty worldwide; especially, for small countries.   In particular, it is noted that the IMF and the World Bank’s structural adjustment policies and practices, which are comparable to loan sharking in the U.S, impose rigid “pre-conditions” on small countries in order for them to receive funds, creating an inherent imbalance of power.  Moreover, Susan George stated the food aid provided by developing countries amounts to “food dumping,” further impeding economic growth by controlling smaller countries and forcing small farmers out of business through “monopoly capitalism.”

Additionally, based on a report entitled, “Differences in Anti-Poverty Approaches in Europe and The United States: A Cross-Atlantic Descriptive Policy Analysis,” by Koen Caminada and Megan C. Martin of Leiden University, “in all OECD countries, public cash benefits and taxes significantly reduce poverty.  However, the report notes the “policy goals for reducing poverty rates are rather vague and do not aspire to a specified target on either side of the Atlantic.”  It would also be noteworthy to review the policies of Iceland, Finland, Cyprus, Norway and the Netherlands, who actually have the lowest poverty rates.

In essence, new policies must enforce and implement international trade and human rights laws prohibiting unequal trade, ensure vulnerable countries are not disadvantaged by developing countries, and policies must institute consensus-building and transparency.

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Cip Cipo • Asesora a la Coordinacion regional y al CD at REPEM - LAC Red de Educacion Popular entre Mujeres Latinoamerica y Caribe from Chile
  • How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?
    "Leaving no one behind " is at the heart of the Sustainable Development Objective 4. Its emphasis is on equitable and inclusive education. In order to carry out this objective, it is necessary that structural changes take place in public policies that promote equity, inclusion and overcome the multiple forms of discrimination in education in the framework of the achievement of human rights. In order to address multiple and interrelated forms of discrimination, education and training must be provided to ensure the full, equitable and effective participation of all, but especially girls and women, by removing the barriers to  access to decision-making at all levels.

    Education is a human right, and there are barriers for women and girls to have access to a quality of education opportunities throughout life at all levels. Addressing the right to adult education is to contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for exercising their rights, and to provide diverse knowledge to contribute to the development of society, and above all, to the establishment of peace, responsible citizenship and sustainable development.

    "Leaving  no one  behind " means giving a important  role to adult education, literacy and lifelong education. It should be a priority in all the goals, targets and indicators of the Post 2030 Agenda. But adult education and literacy not only have to be focused on acquiring the skills for the labor market, but must be oriented towards the construction of full citizenship, especially for indigenous, Afro-descendant and rural women. Adult education, an integral part of the right to education, is a universal right, essential for achieving multiple socio-economic and cultural goals and human rights to participate in the transformative changes of  the country,  at national and local level.

Education  policies should be inclusive, non-discriminatory, guarantee gender equality and fulfill the right to education of girls and boys, young people and adults as geographic location, ethnicity, age, disability, migration, marital status, and other relevant factors. This means that the planning and monitoring of ODSs must take into account the different realities of countries and regions at national and local level and include  t the participation of  the OCS , women's organizations, stakeholder groups and rights holders. The approach must be intersectional, promote dialogue and recognize indivisibility and interdependence in all human rights in the 17 ODS

Using this approach will effectively contribute to leaving  no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs

Ghadeer Taha • Project Assistant at UNDP from Palestinian Territories

In order to achieve such goal, we will need the cooperation of governments and commitment. That is since most causes of problem is related to governmental policies and high level corruption. I think UN needs to have a global conference related to the issue were a related agreement is to be signed with particular articles related to governments commitment to some particular points treating the problem. Similar to Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons , or Kyoto Protocol. Governments which refuse to sign should receive punitive measures, while the ones who do sign and commit should receive reinforcements. UN inspections should be done periodically on governments which signed the agreement.

I think without such actions the problem will remain and what ever strategies UN design will stay as ink on paper with no success. UN has the power to push and force governments in any particular direction if it really intended to. so why not use it? 

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Alda Silva • from Portugal

 

“ Se todo o dinheiro que é dado por Empresas e Particulares chega-se às mãos dos Pobres, não haveria Pobreza Económica neste Mundo”

“ Há vários tipos de Pobreza, Moral e Económica, a Moral só pode ser combatida pela Educação a Económica pela distribuição”

“ SE querem erradicar a Pobreza, deem a palavra aos Próprios eles sabem dizer o  que precisam”

“Erradicar a GUERRA”

As minhas sugestões:

  • Transparência -Análise de dados sobre Donativos e Estatísticas sobre o Destino e Aplicação
  • Trazer à mesa de Reunião os Dirigentes Políticos dos Países com maiores Índices de Pobreza, encontrar soluções.
  • Reconhecer o Direito à Propriedade nos espaços Rurais que ocupam à Gerações e melhorar as Habitações e Infra estruturas (Escolas ,Gabinetes de Saúde e Associações Locais , Transportes Coletivos) .
  • Desenvolver conceitos Empresariais simples, cooperativas e associativismo
  • Desmontar Preconceitos, ser Pobre é o mesmo que ser Rico ,pertencemos à classe dos “HUMANOS” a diferença está apenas no poder económico.
  • Humanistas são tão precisos como Engenheiros
  • A “Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos” Tem de ser a Nova Bíblia
John Kadiwaku Ntonta • President at East Eagle Foundation from Congo - Kinshasa

First thing to do is to eradicate inequalities, corruption, peace and others before thinking about eradication of poverty.

REPLY

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Prakash Goossens • from Belgium

Dear Pedro Conceiçao, 

In my opinion when we talk about leaving no one behind, we should not forget all who are suffering from mental health issues. I call this double poverty: the marginalized persons in a society are confronted besides of their physical poverty with stigma. There will be no health without mental health and this is true for developed and emerging countries! It is clear from the WHO statistics that mental disorders are the biggest cause of diseases in the world even higher than cardio-vascular and cancer diseases. Unfortunately in the global development agenda mental health gets a very low priority. There are signs of hope like the joint collaboration between World Bank and the WHO and some governments (Belgium, Canada) are making efforts to address the issue of mental health on the Global Political Agenda.  Best regards Prakash Goossens, Fracarita International

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Asutosh Satpathy • Current President at Resource Development Centre from India

We do have plethora of literature on poverty measurement as well as measures for eradication. However, certain points need to be outlined. First, existing  base of population percentage in terms of food, nutrition, clothing and shelter; second, access barrier to opportunities for income, employment, education and health; and third, entitlement as a right recognized and being enforced by the legal and justice system.  

HARISH YADAV • Economist at AWAKE SOCIETY from India

Poverty anywhere is harmful for development.First of all there is need to identify the types of poverty As it depends on socio-cultural factors of society.

Siriporn Pipatshukiat • PhD student at Mahidol University from Thailand

This is good concept. I have just written in the other forum, I guess I will share it with this one too.
Please excuse me being straight forward.

Honestly, I would be very excited for this events 5 years ago.
Now I am not. I saw the recent topic, and I guess I will try to have faith again.
Being the voices is not enough anymore. The organization need to spend more time in making those voices that have gotten attention, carried out into practices. Those voices, have not exactly grow, at least from my opinion in my country, but latter it opened a new pave the new pathway for abusive manipulative close circuit group in society. Also, please do homework on your representative in each country. Stop listening to summary to those having team of large PR. If looking for votes, then it achieve the goal. But if seek to really solve the problematic issues. That is not enough.
You cannot solve poverty by giving job alone. You need to empower people, or else, those with newly jobs will continue to be discruminate, continue to be oppressed. And living in the era of capuitalism, people with job will suffer the demand from society that seek to seduce people spending money on thing they do not need. To be belong, in a sustainable, healthy psychological well-being manner, job is not enough. Without empowerment, strengthening, at the core of being human, with the stakeholder seeking to sales, what do you think it add up too.
It is great you are trying to listen, but you are not listening to the right group of people you try to reach, you are not seeing.
And my recent experiences, the human right movement to legal reform , etc locally.
It was a set-up, with camera and flasjh and script, and it is being online, very interactive, but a precise calculated group of people were united for the wrong goals (they were trick into), and not the general population know of the event. I was happened to be there to meet with some amnesty member, to discuss issue I will be addressing in my research. And that is a total fail. Please send babysitter to your representative, once in awhile for check up.

I do respect your organization, it used to be my dream jobs.
All I se now is politic.
Sorry to be frank.

I wish you all well, I hope all your members remember the reason of the emergence of the organization, I hope you refocus back with integrity.
And speaking is not enough anymore, for I believed almost everyone on this planet Earth should at least know about the goal of striving, but without serious implementing it, it is just another fairy tales.

Yours Sincerely,

Siriporn Pipatshukiat

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Joachim H. Spangenberg

On poverty

Poverty is not the same in affluent and poor countries, calling for different strategies. However, as today the majority of poor people are living in mid-income countries, for them economic growth of the country is no longer what should be the priority, but growth of the average income in this group. As described by Piketty and others, the prevailing economic mechanisms lead to income polarisation, which implies a growing number of poor, unless targetted re-distributive policies, are effectively implemented. Regarding income redistribution, this can be achieved for instance by progressive taxes financing social services; the Scandinavian countries provide ample evidence for such models. Redistribution of assets is another issue and a major challenge to be achieved peacefully.

On leaving no one behind

The concept of the social protection floor, developed by ILO and UNESCO and endorsed by UNCSD Rio de Janeiro 2012 offers a basic concept. Evidence and data are available with both UN organisations. Fort UNDP as a member of the UN family, the Rio+20 results (later adoped in the GA) should be the minimum to incorporate into its policies.

 

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Sajjad Zohir • Research Director at Economic Research Group

'Leaving no one behind' is something that one aspires for. At a practical level, there is a need for breaking it down to several intermediate steps. The usual inclination is towards reducing differences - across administrative territory, ethnicity or other socio-cultural groups, demographic segments, etc. Are there lessons to be drawn from MDG experiences to throw light on relations between differences across those segments and overall poverty reduction?

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Dr Arup Barman

"Leaving no one behind" i.e moving together toward the development every one aspires.  Let us understand the emerging "Paradigm of poverty by 2030 and beyond" to generate the policy.  The inclination toward the growth and development from the bottom line paradox and multi stage development from the perspective of sustainable development is essential. We shall discuss during the discussion period.  

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George Thomas

Prof. George E. Thomas:

Hello Pedro and everyone in the Group!

'Leaving no one behind' - is a great thought and I am sure experts around the world would have multiple solutions to offer.

I would like to focus on the strength of the insurance mechanism as one of the ways to achieving this. Insurance products are available for various purposes and social/ business segments around the world. However, insurance is often not within the reach of those who need it most. This happens due to multiple reasons. However, for the purpose of managing risk in an inclusive manner, insurance is a time-honored mechanism.

I am narrowing the discussion down to 3 broad models of insurance - (i) microinsurance, (ii) social security insurance models and (iii) mutuals and cooperatives. 

Without getting into definitions and technical intricacies, I would like to briefly discuss these 3 models.

In the 1st model - Insurance companies offer microinsurance schemes for people having low income. There are often caps based on the income of the people covered, the sum insured that can be opted or the premiums payable. Usually such policies are offered due to some sort of compulsion from the Government. However, there are insurance companies which are insuring low income populations for years at length and are able to create sustainable microinsurance models over time.

The 2nd model is that of social security (cum insurance) schemes, driven by the Government, mostly with subsidized premiums and a strong social security focus. The design helps in transferring unplanned Governmental expenditure for various disaster relief situations (earthquake/ flood/ drought) to an ex-ante risk-financing model, whereby insurance companies become the first port of call for financing disaster costs.

The responsibility of creating adequate healthcare infrastructure in a country and maintaining it efficiently to take care of the needs of the population is another challenge of the Government. This model helps in breaking the poverty trap by passing on these responsibilities to private healthcare providers, while the costs of financing major treatment costs get borne by the insurance mechanism.

The 3rd model is that of mutuals and cooperatives. These are community based models that work on insurance principles. The major difference is that here the risk is retained and shared within the community, without being transferred to an insurance company.

All these models have their own positives and weaknesses. Some models have challenges in being cost effective; some have a high probability of the insured people getting undue benefits at the cost of the insurance mechanism; some are not able to ensure fair claim servicing to the customers; while some other models allow unintended beneficiaries to benefit at the cost of the insured and insurer. Again, some models work well in particular socio-economic contexts while others may not.

However, there are many success stories in all these models and with proper thought an planning, the insurance mechanism can ensure that no one is really left behind.

If the group is interested in taking these ideas forward, I would be happy to share more thoughts on the topic.

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Emma González • from Mexico

Dear George,

I am interested in this topic, specifically in people with disabilities. Many people with these characteristics do not have any kind of insurance and are considered as a vulnerable and therefore poor population. Do you have any information?

Thank you
greetings from Mexico

 
 

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Joshua Konkankoh

Speaking from a grassroots perspective I focus on the 3rd model as insuring no one is left behind because I find in the rural world of Africa knows no insurance and government policy in this domain doesn't always reach them.

Community groups therefore only find solace in their mutual solidarity schemes which the cooperative model can reinforce and strengthen.

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Asela • from Sri Lanka

No one left behind principle is the best aspect of SDGs. SDGs cannot be accessed without involving/ reaching vulnerable communities, without addressing disparities. Therefore evaluation with disaggregated data is very important. Please see some resources here: http://www.evalpartners.org/evalgender/no-one-left-behind#guidance. EvalGender+ network, UN Women and partners developed guidance on Evaluating SDGs with equity and gender lens. It is available online and free. http://www.evalpartners.org/sites/default/files/documents/evalgender/Ev… 

enjoy reading it.

asela

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S ann • from United States

Thank you, Asela!

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Dr Suma Parahakaran

The SGD implementation has been successful to a certain extent. The case of Human Rights is related to Human compassion especially where reducing poverty is concerned. Very often Human Rights is seen as something that one has to  rightfully procure. The disparity issues cannot be solved by rights only but through compassionate work from all sectors. Very often we have  voiced out that education is the solution to many problems existing today. Yet the walls built are higher to cross over because of the widening gap that exists in financing education to the poorest. Hence policy makers cannot work alone in isolation from civil groups who carry out the ventures of solving issues and know the brunt of the burden which is silently shoved off once the finite material benefits are depleted to help them. SDG therefore has to look at long term benefits, through mutual collaboration. There is a model attached  suggesting of one of the ways to look at long term issues for attaining SDG's.

 

Regards

Dr Suma Parahakaran

Ethics and Values Educator 

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Anita Meldrum

Havings rights to access, e.g. water is one thing but the real right that matters is the right to make decisions about how water is used. This requires all stakeholders in the community to have their say and express their needs, not have someone impose upon them what they think is needed.  The only way to overcome poverty is for (in particular rural) communities to be fully engaged in decision making about developments in their own community.  The linkage between water, health and economic development must be made and long term decisions and sustainable projects must be the norm, not the rarity. The important water, energy, food nexus must be taken into account. Renewable energuies that use water in a profligate way and deplete resources needed both for people and ecosystems are not sustainable.

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Giorgio D'AMORE • Consultor experto en empleo, políticas macroeconómicas públicas y modelización de escenarios en el mercado laboral; seguimiento y análisis de políticas at EU expert

Good morning everybody. I have expressed a position in a short post published on LinkedIn last year, that it is my pleasure to share in this context:                                      A World for All: an equitable perspective about Labour and Sustainability                 https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/world-all-equitable-perspective-labour-s…   answering to: "how do you guarantee everyone a decent life, using less resources as possible, producing less waste possible and working as little as possible, in a context of full labour inclusion?"

Regarding " innovative examples of employing data" please have a look at "Detecting and Analyzing Social Resilience in the Labour Market"       https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/detecting-analyzing-social-resilience-gi…  where the Resilience is meant as opposite to Vulnerability. Within the 2016 Italian XII National Statistical Conference, organised by ISTAT,  this technical contribution  on Resilience has been accepted by the Scientific Committee, and it  is published as the first “Scientific Poster” in the Section  “NEW TOOLS TO EXPLAIN EMERGING PHENOMENA"

Thanks for the given opportunity

Best regards

Giorgio D'Amore

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Sandra Luisa Marques

Hi everyone! I would like to bring to the table the issue of people with disabilities, a group that faces everyday challenges in order to get access to a number of aspects that are key to erradicate poverty - e.g. education, vocational training, employment. This is true regardless of place of living, and even social status. When compared to their peers without disability they get poor education, vocational training that do not meet the market needs (making it difficult to find a job) and unemployment rates that are much more higher than for the other groups. They also are not empowered to take part in decisions, even the ones that directly affect their lives. When thinking about the MDG we see that persons with disabilities are not mentioned in any of the 8 goals. (http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/review_of_disability_and_the_m…)

We know that not all people with disabilities are or will become poor, but we also know that poor people are more likely to become disabled, due to a number of socio-economic disavantages. 

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Amen
  • Commenter les politiques doivent être ajustés dans des contextes différents afin qu'ils contribuent plus efficacement à ne laisser personne derrière dans la réalisation des sdg1 et ODD connexes?

Pour ne laisser personne derrière, il faut connaitre déjà en quoi consiste La diversité au sein des parties prenantes. Quels sont les véritables besoins de chaque catégorie et les prioriser. En Afrique, il faut développer de véritables politiques de protection sociale et cela passe aussi par le renforcement de l'assainissement dans la gestion des des affaires publiques. Tant que règnera l'impunité avec des mesures «d'immunité» pour certains, ils pourront toujours dilapider l'argent qui doit servir justement à éradiquer la pauvreté. Cela ne sert à rien d'emprisonner les gens pour un moment, mais il faut les faire rembourser en saisissant et vendant si nécessaire leurs biens.

la pauvreté monétaire est plus grande et plus importante que la pauvreté non monétaire. La plupart des actions de développement sont orientées vers la pauvreté non monétaire or résoudre la pauvreté monétaire associé à l'éducation des populations permet de régler la pauvreté non monétaire. 

Des Projets Filets sociaux ont été développés dans plusieurs pays africains. Comment a été fait le ciblage? A-t-on réussit à ne laisser personne derrière? Quelle  leçons tirées ont été tirées et comment envisage t on passage à l'échelle?

Pour ne laisser personne derrière, Il faut que les approches d'identification des nécessiteux soient adaptées au milieu et non uniformisées. De même que les Appuis apportés.

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Ahmad Abdullahi • from Nigeria

Create a cluster of  Direct Humane 'Money Pockets (DHMP)' in every poverty stricken regions or points. These cluster of highly independent and innovative master-minds will work within a flexible agenda to address their targets; build their physiological and psychological aptitude to take up their rightful place on the wheel of development. Reaching them thereby to where some Governments and NGOs are wanting.

Samuel Chanchan • Executive Director at Global Peace and Development Organization from Liberia

According to "President Bush quoted, “Clearly, our children are our future…Too many of our neediest children are being left behind” (www.ed.gov).

 

Firstly Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind”  we have lots to do at countries  level  we need to put some measure in to place and see what government can do for our children future. Government’s role in education  shall be their first agenda ; making sure every child/ children have access to  elementary and secondary education. Accountability begins with informed parents, communities and elected leaders they  can work together to improve schools. The states will measure the progress by testing every child in grades 13 through 9  in reading and math,  every countries  will implement fair and effective annual tests and  international partners  will provide funding to countries  to design and implement tests.  schools that do not improve will receive extra help with planning and technical assistance. After receiving extra help, schools that do not improve may be restructured. Flexibility means that No Child Left Behind gives communities the freedom to find local solutions for local challenges. For example…to provide more local control and flexibility, 50% of the formula funding from the following programs may be distributed among any of the programs: Teacher quality, education technology and safe and Drug-Free schools. Local Control and flexibility means money goes to solve problems, not to subsidize bureaucracy. There have been many problems such as: Inadequate funding, while the administration likes to point to the large increases in spending for the education of the disadvantaged students, funding must be viewed in the larger context of a lagging economy .

Samuel Chanchan • Executive Director at Global Peace and Development Organization from Liberia
  1. “Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind” through education  will be vital to our society at large.

 

A wide variety of issues, locally and nationally, are affecting education, and will continue to affect education until these issues are addressed and solved. Overcrowded classrooms, shortages of supplies, low teachers’ salaries, dilapidated buildings, and high substitute teacher use are a few of the issues that have affected many schools across the nation.  Even though a few of these problems have been resolved, many still remain.  These issues are determined by the location of the school and the type of school, either private, public, or charter.  The current issues in education that will influence my teaching, based on my beliefs, pertain to The No Child Left Behind Act, time management, lack of flexibility, school budget cuts, technology, and bullying. 
Effective in 2001, The No Child Left Behind Act  policy was proposed  in  the US to nationally test all children under the same conditions and with the same test annually in order to prevent students from being trapped in a failing school.  However, the focus on these mandated tests steered the teachings of reading and mathematics to a whole new level.  With curriculum focusing the majority of its time on reading and mathematics, scores have increased across the nation, but a large gap among students still exists   but those students who struggle, still seem to struggle.  According to  "World Bank"   reports

  • Around 89 million youth, ages 12-24 years, are out of school in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • A new World Bank report examines factors that lead to 12 to 24 year olds dropping out. It highlights six characteristics of out-of-school youth.
  • Three policy entry points are particularly important to keep youth in school: retention of at-risk youth in school, remediation through alternative education, and integration with the labor market.

 The pure memorization of facts being taught under these conditions are going to negatively effect students in the long run upon entering high school, college, and their future endeavors. 
The benefits of The No Child Left Behind Act are currently being debated.  This Act raises concerns because it will influence me as a teacher and how I will teach.

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Amen

1) eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind

To leave no one behind, we have to know what are the differents aspects of diversity of all stakeholders, what are their real need and adress the priorities. In Africa, it's necessary to develop social protection policies. It can be also done by reinforcing public affairs management. As much as misappropriation will not be punished, they will still waste the money which suppose to serve to development. We don't need them to go to gail but we need them to reimburse if necessary by selling their possessions.

Some social nets projects are implemented in african countries. Do they reach to not leave no one? How was the targeting done? How about lessons and scaling up?

If we don't want to leave no one, we have to develop adapted approach of targeting related to the context. Same with interventions or support.

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Rita Luthra

Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind

 

Health and education are basic determinants of eradicating poverty. Education improves health, while health improves learning potentials. Education and health complement, enhance and support each other; together, they serve as the foundation for a better world. To be able to read, write and calculate has been acknowledged as a human right. However, more than 100 million children are still deprived of access to primary education and fewer than half of all children worldwide participate in early childhood programs.

 

Better information helps us to make better decisions. Investing in wireless Internet technology is the way forward to tackle maternal mortality and morbidity in the developing countries. E-learning is the most cost-effective way of transmitting evidence-based medicine to the developing countries. Imagine sitting in office or at home in USA or Europe, and by interacting with different cultures we will be able to understand different customs and learn to respect the diversity. Imagine students in developing countries and the United States simultaneously reviewing the same medical curriculum and learning from each other. This is e-learning at its best in an Internet classroom, and it is the goal of our initiative in Women’s Health and Development, title: http://www.WomensHealthSection.com; which was launched in collaboration with the United Nations is serving about 14 million subscribers in 227 countries and it is available in six official languages of the United Nations.

 

It is indeed my pleasure to submit to you UN Documents E/2015/NGO/2 and E/2014/NGO/53

Over the years, the United Nations, governments, civil societies, and individuals have put forth countless plans of action for reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. According to the World Health Organization, at least 1,600 women will die today from a complication of pregnancy and childbirth, most of them in developing countries. No technical or political approach – no matter how well intentioned – has ever conquered this enormous problem. What is needed is broader dissemination of medical knowledge. And Internet classrooms and initiatives such as WomensHealthSection.com, can help that goal.

 

We welcome you on our e-Health platform; # SDGAction 1212

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=1212

 

Please join our efforts; we welcome everyone.

 

Thank you for this opportunity

 

Rita Luthra, MD

President

Women’s Health and Education Center (WHEC)

NGO in Special Consultative Status with ECOSOC of the United Nations

Editor-in-Chief of e-Health Publication

http://www.WomensHealthSection.com

 

 

Joshua Alade • Community Evangelist/Founder at NextGen Africa Initiative from Nigeria

I agree with you Dr Rita on the advantage that connected classrooms offer for learners and wireless mobility for the maternal health of women and vulnerable children. However, in my reality, this is a utopia. It will take more than 20 years to achieve this in my clime because of the absence of infrastructure, limited knowledge and access to electricity.

We will need the support of the industrialized world to achieve these objectives in quickly especially in the era of the Global Goals. Access to funding and opportunities to develop the mind power of youth in Africa is important. We can create our own solution if we have better information.

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Onofre Corpuz

Thanks for this opportunity

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Pradip Dey

Dear All,

Good day!

I would like to put forth the following points:

  • Accelerated infrastructure investments will not only de-bottleneck the system, it will also create its own demand.
  • Returning to a sustained path to economic growth and renewal will require innovation in policy making together with bold leadership from the private sector.
  • Partnership arrangements to achieve desired objectives in a range of areas is critical in formulating and delivering national and regional policies, involving consultation with key stakeholders, including civil society. Similar-type arrangements required in other areas such as spatial planning, waste management and water quality. These can involve a sophisticated set of structures and interlink ages that sometimes transcend administrative and geographical boundaries.
  • There is an urgent need for using structural reforms to fuel innovation and growth in services. Also a consolidation of service sector is warranted. These will help winning in tradable goods and services

With warm regards,

Pradip Dey

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Regina Njeri Muchai • from Kenya

Hello,

There is a need to have our Governments especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa refocus empowering the poor. There are strides in some of these countries e.g. in devolving governments so that there is development at the local level. But what is the need of devolution if it is coupled with corruption?

In my view, in order to eradicate poverty there are three things that are prerequisite

1. Good Governance

2. Education for all....to enable us to put in place an accountable Government

3. Enabling environment e.g. Infrastructure and Technology

 

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SUSHANT KUMAR PANDEY

I assume that Eradicating Poverty and leaving no one behind will not be just a topic of discussion it must be a global aim because the eradication of poverty includes holistic development  in all aspects including all with synergic efforts ,  This development includes not only growth of some specific communities , not in some specific areas but also growth in every aspects for all .

 Interestingly this global goal  needs global approach but locally diagnosed  and this will vary from continent to continent , nation to nation , states to state, district to district , city to city and village to village. By only improving livelihood opportunity or health access , social and economic improvement ,women empowerment , quality education or cooperation among nations etc are not individually need to be catered but these all need to be identified as per area wise requirement and cooperation among nation and department must be ensured.

Budgets which are allocated to cater for particular plan of action must be monitored right from agency to implementing body and end org.

Only data management can’t be the criteria for the final evaluation but it should be linked with end member of the community from where he/she belongs for which the policy is being framed.

For that we need to get concerned about following points

-----Identification of target groups right from continent, nation, state, district, village, specific community.

------- Need analysis survey and problem ranking of these groups, area of interventions because it may be possible that a village/city has got growth in employment but social illness is still there which means poverty is still in existence for another example it may be possible that a village/city has got growth in monetary terms by intensive employment opportunities, but due to lack of health resources and awareness they are not able to eradicate poverty at all.

----- Intervention of developmental plans as per local need

-----Proper chain in monitoring and evaluation system

------For Data evaluation -Base line survey mid survey and end survey by wealth ranking and PRA methods will be more helpful.

------ The Governments plans running or introduced in countries which have direct link with poverty eradication must be shared among other nations as (MNREGA Employment scheme in India)

Poverty eradication is not just uplift the society by means of monetary , health education but in terms of  thoughts poverty  eradication is also needed which includes social developmental aspects and directly relates with economical aspects  too..

Sushant Kumar Pandey

Social Youth Activist

Founder

Youth Action for Social Responsibility (YASR)

India

I assume that Eradicating Poverty and leaving no one behind will not be just a topic of discussion it must be a global aim because the eradication of poverty includes holistic development  in all aspects including all with synergic efforts ,  This development includes not only growth of some specific communities , not in some specific areas but also growth in every aspects for all .

 Interestingly this global goal  needs global approach but locally diagnosed  and this will vary from continent to continent , nation to nation , states to state, district to district , city to city and village to village. By only improving livelihood opportunity or health access , social and economic improvement ,women empowerment , quality education or cooperation among nations etc are not individually need to be catered but these all need to be identified as per area wise requirement and cooperation among nation and department must be ensured.

Budgets which are allocated to cater for particular plan of action must be monitored right from agency to implementing body and end org.

Only data management can’t be the criteria for the final evaluation but it should be linked with end member of the community from where he/she belongs for which the policy is being framed.

For that we need to get concerned about following points

-----Identification of target groups right from continent, nation, state, district, village, specific community.

------- Need analysis survey and problem ranking of these groups, area of interventions because it may be possible that a village/city has got growth in employment but social illness is still there which means poverty is still in existence for another example it may be possible that a village/city has got growth in monetary terms by intensive employment opportunities, but due to lack of health resources and awareness they are not able to eradicate poverty at all.

----- Intervention of developmental plans as per local need

-----Proper chain in monitoring and evaluation system

------For Data evaluation -Base line survey mid survey and end survey by wealth ranking and PRA methods will be more helpful.

------ The Governments plans running or introduced in countries which have direct link with poverty eradication must be shared among other nations as (MNREGA Employment scheme in India)

Poverty eradication is not just uplift the society by means of monetary , health education but in terms of  thoughts poverty  eradication is also needed which includes social developmental aspects and directly relates with economical aspects  too..

Sushant Kumar Pandey

Social Youth Activist

Founder

Youth Action for Social Responsibility (YASR)

India

 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

It is true that in line with the commitments for SDG and earlier MDG,the governments have formulated schemes for benefit of poor.Their intention was to uplift them by education and latter by providing employment.Subsidized food products were distributed.How ever the success and failure has largely depended on the leader who used to have a committed monitoring team.The team has achieved success when ever it was non prejudicial.

Things have changed in modern times in families and joint families.This crept in to the social system.Each individual is leader,and he is only to be adored.He controls power,business,legislature and so the policies and politics.

What we felt when we discussed the world we want was that;there has to be third party monitoring and evaluation. Judicial powers where needed to be bestoed on such monitors for justice to work.Legislature has to put in laws for such.

 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Finding [1]employment based on what the particular set of persons can do.

[2]Finding ways to give him/her water/food/shelter even in subsidized settings.

[3]Looking after their health,and continuous education about the world as it happens.[4]Respecting their sentiments[5]creating leaders out of them.[4]Growing animals is one such activity where the societies need less training.I was in Ethiopia,East Africa in 2001-03.I was in Saudi Arabia-1997 and in Kuwait 2004.I visit USA every two years almost.

But what is found in many places is lack of commitment and ethics.The social and political leaders are some what busy in helping the societies by spending their time for betterment of humans .

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Víctor Espino

Erradicar la pobreza obedece a un conjunto de factores que por lo general no se toman en cuenta. La educación que debería promoverse, mejorar y buscar que sea accesible a las poblaciones mas alejadas, solo recibe un mínimo de interés por parte de los gobiernos. Para el caso de Perú la crisis educativa es el resultado de años de inoperatividad de parte de los diferentes gobiernos que pasan y no toman interés en este tema, no distribuyendo adecuadamente los presupuestos y por lo tanto, continuando en la misma situación.

Para el caso de la salud es similar, en nuestro país hay lugares donde las postas solo cuentan con una camilla y un personal de enfermería y otra posta muy alejada cuenta con el médico, es una situación que realmente nos pone en ele tapete este punto de no olvidar a nadie, cuando si se hace.

Hoy en nuestro país se ha descubierto que por la corrupción de diferentes niveles del gobierno, así como, de la empresa privada, NO OLVIDAR!  a nadie realmente fue DEJAR A LOS QUE NOS RETRASAN, aunque nos cueste decirlo la exclusión social se institucionalizó en el Perú.

Todo cambio, como se señala en el libro de la vida, deberá venir de las personas y de estas a sus familias, comunidades, sociedades ejerciendo presión para normas y leyes equitativas para todos, la pregunta es cuántos estamos listos para modificar nuestra forma de ser y apostar por una visión con compromiso social, pensando en el desarrollo de nuestro país.

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WELINTON RODRIGUES NASCIMENTO

Em qualquer estágio de uma democracia o conflito de interesses está presente, a neutralidade desse elemento desagregador do Estado de direito é proporcional ao grau de cidadania do povo, de modo geral, ainda escolhemos mal os nossos representantes políticos que se tornam presas fáceis do INTERESSE CORPORATIVO e financeiro aprovando, irrefletidamente, tudo que beneficia esse bloco que insiste em ignorar e desmontar o texto constitucional vigente. Se não reagirmos vão reduzir o Brasil a um país agrário do século XIX a serviço das manobras do capital especulativo. Estão implementando medidas neoliberais de vinte anos atrás, muitas delas responsáveis pelo agravamento da crise financeira internacional de 2008. Temer ameaça a SOBERANIA do país e desrespeita o conjunto da população para satisfazer os rentistas, enquanto isso continuamos sendo o quarto país mais desigual da América Latina e Caribe.

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Mitchell Gold

firstly I want to object to this system of gathering information.   the United Nations, ECOSOC, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and the other 28 agencies of the United Nations MUST be better coordinated.   The United Nations resident Coordinator position is not functioning as it was originally designed and someone should inform the SG of this fact.   Having a different system for the DOnor and Receiver countries may make sense to some, but a higher level of coordination is necessary.   No where is this more important than with the SDG's.   WHile they appear to be comprehensive - they are not.   The 169 touchpoints for measurements has not been vetted nor orchestrated.  This is because of a lack of holistic thinking at the UN.  

it is not rocket science to say that we need better distribution systems for food , shelter, clothing, and electricity.   at the very least education in these matters is first necessary at the UN level - then taken into the field as a best examples of solutions.   The UNSDSN organization run by Jeffrey Sachs is doing no better with the SDG's than he did with the failed MDG's.   How is it after two years and a billion dollars of infrastructure investment  that the largest initiative in education took place in Malaysia  a country not known for a broadminded education system.  

there is an education problem at the UN first pointed out by RObert Muller in 1972 and nothing has been actively achieved in developing common core education across the UN system.  if thiis ever happens it ought to begin with one word - PO - as enunciated be Edward de Bono - this is a critical observation that the UN has failed to grasp at any level.   The only thing I can add is AFTER the UN promotes the use of the word and not until.

Fátima Falcão • Diretora at Olhar Cidadão - Estratégias para o Desenvolvimento Humano from Brazil
  • Como é que as políticas precisam de ser ajustados em diferentes contextos para garantir que eles de forma mais eficaz contribuir para deixar ninguém para trás na realização dos SDG1 e ODS relacionados?
  • Há uma nova demanda surgindo no mundo que parece se sobrepor a todas as outras: a demanda por comunicação transparente e democrática, sem a qual Saúde, Educação e outras necessidades básicas não serão suficientes para o desenvolvimento humano integral. Os movimentos de retrocesso de direitos, evidentes hoje no Brasil e em outros países, aponta para a passividade das pessoas diante de sucessivas ondas autoritárias, que ganham força nos processos de desinformação e são responsáveis por varrer conquistas sociais, sem qualquer esboço de reação por parte das populações. Expostas ao que está se configurando como fenômeno da "pós-verdade", as bombas semióticas que obnubilam a visão do quadro social, espalhando se pelas redes digitais e meios de comunicação convencionais, são as novas "napalms" usadas pelos poderes mais conservadores e retrógrados para erradicar sementes das quais possam (re)brotar os valores que sustentam a busca por igualdade de direitos. De nada adiantará garantir direitos se não há consciência formada pela informação e pelo conhecimento, em bases de pluralidade, debate, aprofundamento e participação coletiva. Não deixar ninguém para trás, em suma, é não deixar ninguém sem  garantia a informação aberta, ampla, diversa, debatida, relacional etc.  E o poder da comunicação democrática está na base dos ajustes necessários.
  • Como eficazes são os métodos atuais para medir a pobreza, ao deixar ninguém para trás? Que lições foram aprendidas com respeito à compreensão da distribuição geográfica e social da pobreza, a fim de identificar os pobres e vulneráveis ​​dentro dos países? 
  • Há uma questão de fundo na qualificação de pobres e vulneráveis, sobretudo porque essa vulnerabilidade está associada à tutela dos meios de comunicação ligados aos poderes institucionais, sobre temas relacionados a direitos. Claramente comprometidos com um discurso cada vez mais inverossímil de combate à corrupção, que se revela mais como recurso para a perenização do próprio poder, essas instituições têm pouco interesse em divulgar por exemplo avanços sociais lastreados em políticas públicas eficazes, como compras da agricultura familiar para a merenda escolar, incentivos educacionais gerados por programas de distribuição de renda, etc. No Brasil, com suas dimensões geográficas desafiadoras, o papel das mídias poderia ter sido favorável a esse processo de localização e intervenção na miséria, para o qual é estratégica a existência de cadastros sociais eficientes na identificação e alcance do pobres e dos mais excluídos. Ao contrário, aqui, esse processo sofreu ataques de desinformação, com notícias que desqualificavam os programas ou apontavam problemas passíveis de serem corrigidos, como questões de risco estrutural. 
  • Quais são alguns exemplos inovadores de emprego de dados ea revolução de dados para identificar e avaliar as necessidades políticas dos que ficaram para trás?
  • Cadastros sociais são o ponto de partida, mas, para além disso, o uso inteligente dos dados é fundamental. A inteligência no cruzamento de informações, com análises relacionais que possam apontar pontos de estrangulamento do acesso dos pobres a medidas distributivas (de Saúde, Educação, Renda etc) é estratégica na formulação de uma nova geração de políticas eficazes no sentido de colocar todos "na mesma página" do desenvolvimento humano e ninguém ficar para trás. 
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Marguerite AWOULBE

Eradiquer la pauvreté en ne laissant personne derrière c'est rentrer à l'humanisme, à l'humanité, en mettant de côté le capitalisme avec ses gros intérêts. La division du monde qui a mis les pauvres d'un côté et les riches de l'autre est ce pour quoi nous avons toujours travaillé. Je ne vais pas utiliser les statistiques et autres. Néanmoins pour que personnes ne sois derrière, il y a 3 équations que certains pays comme la France ont déjà fait un gros effort : La santé, l'école, l'habitat, nous pourrons y ajouter la nutrition. L'ONU doit se battre à ce jours pour que les trois premiers sujets cités soient entièrement à la charge des Etats. Tout enfant doit pouvoir accéder à la connaissance et même les adultes qui le désirent. Chaque Etat doit prendre en charge la santé des siens sans exceptions. Le logement doit être un droit pour tout être humain tout comme l'eau et la nourriture. Si notre planète met chaque être humain à l'aise dans ces domaines. ce ne serait plus autant honteux qu'à nos jours d'être humain. 

Mettre en avant des sujets parlant d'une liberté des peuples quand ceux-ci ne peuvent ni manger à leur fin, ni dormir dans des logements décents tout en restant incapable de se soigner en cas de maladie est tout sauf la liberté.

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

For a small fraction of your extensive note i feel collective world can derive an answer.The industrialists need not be agriculturists,need not be humanist.But in times of crop produce sales,they along with government and its banks have to buy the produce at reasonable rates and store the same for public distribution system.They need to advance some money and create some storage facilities.

This will be their corporate social responsibility.

Social Justice for all
3564994 • Country Representative at Global Institute for Women Empowerment from Gambia

firstly I want to object to this system of gathering information that the United Nations agencies  MUST be better coordinated. The United Nations resident Coordinator position is not functioning as it was originally designed and someone should inform the Secretary General of this fact.   Having a different system for the Donor and Receiver countries may make sense to some, but a higher level of coordination is necessary.     While they appear to be comprehensive - they are not.   The 169 touch points for measurements has not been vetted or not directed to the right communities.  This is because of a lack of holistic thinking at the UN. The Gambia is an exception but they need to really coordinate the local staffs. Because must of them are bias in letting access to funds to young upcoming non governmental organizations whom they are not related to.

Finally, I would extend my utmost regards to the organizing committees for the efforts to let global youths to share their opinions to most particularly how to attain the Sustainable Development Goals. Is it possible to have an email where I can sent my CONCEPT on how to attain quality education in the Gambia and Africa at large.

Best wishes,                                                                                                                             Bubacarr Njie                                                                                                                            Founder and CEO of Acceleration for Rural Development Organization The Gambia.          Email: bubacarrnjie9@gmail.com                                                                                            Contact: +220 3564994 

Donovan McLaren • Executive Director at Kevoy Community Development Institute (KCDI) Jamaica from Jamaica

 The eradicating of poverty is a challenge that no one organization, community or country can address.  

This challenge must first and foremost must be acknowledge and with this clear acknowledgement and understanding a collective approach on a global scale will have to be formulated. Anything less will fall short of the overall objective.    

www.kcdijamaica.weebly.com

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Marcus POLETTE

Hi everybody! 

Fantastic to be with all of you in this discussion.

I agree with Fatima from Brazil. We are just begining an interesting project in Brazil in order to understand this issue together the municipality of Itajai taking into account several social, economic, environmental and governance indicators based on SDG - 01. I hope to show you all the improvement during our discussions.

In reality we need more practice than theories. 

abubaker rashed • member at Society Development Association in Nubia from Egypt

Since Egypt began construction of the High Dam in the Aswan area, construction was completed in 1964
UNESCO launched an international campaign to save the Temples of Nubia in 1962
Nuba residents were displaced to the Combo Amboa area
Since then, neither Egypt nor the international community has been interested in the development of Nuba villages
Which led to high rates of poverty and migration because there is no development in the new place and called Nasr Nubia
The Nubians want to return to the development of their original area behind the High Dam
Egypt rated the Constitution in Article 236
The right of the Nubians to develop their original areas
But
The Egyptian state has not carried out any development for the Nubians
Poor rates in Nubia are increasing

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Gabriela Munoz-Melendez

There are lot of gaps in policies related to eradicate poverty and to promote a sustainable future due to lack of governance and sectorial fragmentation approaches in Mexico and other counties in Latin America. However, the main drives for such gaps have their origins in the lack of implementation and  political will, follow-up monitoring, accountability, decentralization, quality and quantity of effective institutional administration and transparency. At present, regulations and institutions are in place but multilevel and multi-actor coordination are still pending tasks.

 

Gabriela Munoz-Melendez, Ph.D & D.IC

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Mexico

 

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Higor Rafael Lopes do Nascimento

É uma satisfação imensa como um coordenador sem fins lucrativos Associação de participar nesta discussão imensurável.

Os pobres empregos necessidade e educação e isso virá com os países tornando-se cada vez mais sustentável para que todos serão capazes de ter o seu dinheiro para ter as necessidades diárias atendidas.

Os pobres também são muito inteligentes, mas eles não recebem apoio para a auto-desenvolvimento, para empreender, inovar, fazer o seu sonho realidade. Às vezes, esse sonho pode levar a novas idealizações. Mas muitas vezes os pobres são excluídas, só porque ele não tem um PhD, um pós-doutorado.

sociedade global é auto-qualificada pelas marcas de vestuário outra pessoa está vestindo. E é isso. Há tantas desigualdades que o pobre, o preto, a mulher negra tem quase nenhum momento.

Porque mais e mais países estão extraindo recursos naturais e a tendência no futuro próximo pode ter o potencial para efeitos secundários. E esses efeitos, apenas quem vai sofrer mais são os pobres.
Há uma falta de apoio directo nas comunidades de baixa renda e extrema pobreza no planeta, porque há certamente pessoas com muitas ideias para inovar e obter outros para gerar sua renda para satisfazer as suas necessidades diárias.

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Asheesh Kumar Pandey • Teaching cum Research Fellow at Institute of Engineering and Technology Lucknow India from India

Need to provide employment and promote entrepreneurship can remove poverty. 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

True "growth alone cannot guarantee the eradication of poverty and reduction in inequalities. Even when growth lifts the incomes of millions of people, it does not necessarily lift all incomes, particularly those of the poorest, unless explicit policies are implemented with this aim. It is now evident that poverty reduction efforts are not likely to be sustainable unless the underlying drivers of poverty such as exclusion and vulnerability are tackled".

In this sub continent we have seen two revolutions[1]That happened in and around 1970-80 [2]The one that is called soft ware revolution in 2000-2010.

Both benifitted families to large extent,many came out of near poverty lines,enjoyed,seen the world.But still the people sticking to their native places and dependent on land and agriculture polices have walked in to a deep web of financial problems,due to lack of understanding of governments on what is GDP.

What and how currency printing is related to GDP.Shall they look for currency for all by devaluation of monies.Is the productivity more or less important to agriculture.How to equally look for same and derive its taxes.How the taxes shall be utilized.

The industrialists have become a neo-lobby,with many middlemen of banks and business,who wanted migration of monies with out social responsibility to happen.

Samuel Chanchan • Executive Director at Global Peace and Development Organization from Liberia

• By the end of the first 900 days of the SDGs (September 2018), governments should identify their marginalised populations, develop a leave no one behind strategy, and begin its implementation. This could be overseen by a cross-ministerial leave no one behind working group. A high-level summit should be convened in September 2018 to share learning, change direction if necessary and monitor progress. • The first  900 days are just the beginning. They need to be followed by sustained action until 2030 to address the systemic barriers to the progress of marginalised people. Progress could be monitored by a series of ‘stepping stone’ targets, set every three to five years, aiming to ensure that any disparities in progress are narrowing fast enough to leave no one behind.

Government should priority needs of its citizens in  every direction  by providing  sustainable programs that will help and reduce poverty and make sure no one lift behind and the international communities should review all  policies  from every countries moreover, lower income countries who faces poverty and meet the needs of marginalised people in those low income countries; bringing  thing close to those whom need of it. Government  form different  countries shall priority their citizens and corruption is one of the factors that undermined this process. We are calling  on all stakeholders  to ensure we achieved this agenda Leaving No One Behind by 2030.

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Baba cheikh hamdy

الحاجة ماسة لحكامة راشدة عبر مختلف المستويات

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StepUp4Pakistan • founder at www.theshehri.com from Pakistan

Poverty  reduction is not possible because  of the methods and formats are being used to report and make decisions . We see leading UN organisations  report and make big statements only  on  the basis of few selected  groups  which are formed to get easy money , there is not enough caution and scrutiny applied , once when these organisations become the  only source for UN's facts about regions "needs" and "success" of their development related projects, it is impossible to see any improvement in deserving people's lives.

Michael Frederiksen • President at Community Education Services (CES) Canada from Canada

"I have seen them, young kids huddled together in a corner of a refuse heap in Kakamega, KENYA. With barely enough to cover themselves, their minds dulled by sniffing glue or drinking a poisonous ethanol mix, their outerwear soiled and ragged, they live on the bare edge of survival. No one comes looking for them, no one even knows who they are. 

And then the little ones who roam roadways and rural pathways searching for food. Chewing on a piece of sugar cane is only a temporary fix. They suffer from many things, but today and yesterday and likely the day before they have not had a decent meal. What that does to a hungry child is physiologically, mentally and emotionally disturbing.

I have witnessed the effects of malnourishment and children dangerously thin or anemic. I have talked to young people in their mid teens who due to "stunting" appeared as those aged nine or ten. Something stirs within me...a mix of anger and deep sadness."

Where there is poverty there is malnutrition and systemic hunger. Poverty and hunger are virtually synonymous. The right to adequate food is a human right. So why does hunger prevail when there is more than enough nourishment and food sources on the planet? 

Hunger is universal. Most humans have gone without a meal or experienced pangs of hunger where a day has gone by without nourishment. Yet there are an estimated 800 million people worldwide who are chronically hungry. This is greater than the populations of Canada, the United States and the European Union combined. One in eight people do not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life. This makes hunger and malnutrition the number one risk to health worldwide, greater than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.

Presently, due to environmental factors and lack of rain in the north and northeast sectors, there is a severe drought in Kenya. The facts are that 1.6 million Kenyans face hunger on a daily basis. 80 percent of Kenya's population participate in agriculture and pastoralism. Small farm households deliver the bulk of the nation's food supply. Landholdings are small, productivity is low and most have little access to technological inputs, financial services and markets to sell any surplus produce. Poverty and hunger are for many a fact of life. 

The poor in Kenya are of all ages; from the very young whose mothers cannot produce enough milk, to the aged with no relatives to care for them. Landless farmers working on the fields of others and youth orphaned by HIV/Aids need increased food supply to survive. So too the unemployed living in acute poverty and the ones suffering from mental illness. Women and children remain on the front lines of hunger.

The malnourished cannot fight infectious diseases due to lack of protein and vitamin deficiencies. Their food intake does not include enough energy to meet the minimal physiological needs for an active life. Wasting is an indication of acute malnutrition caused by deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc and iodine. This can result in reduced physical growth and mental impairment bringing on premature death.

Since 2004, CES Canada's mission to reduce poverty through education and healthcare has created better and healthier learners through a daily nutrition program. The creation of dairy and agriculture farms in schools has enabled students able to concentrate on their studies and not on mere survival. Hand washing stations provide added hygiene that can reduce up to 80% of diseases. 

Recognizing the importance of Agriculture in Kenyan society and realizing the impact that improved practice and technology has on the supply of food, CES Canada/Kenya has encouraged students to study Agriculture at the college/university level. CES Canada has provided university scholarships for CES grads who are completing honours degrees in Agriculture Economics, Engineering, Business and Education. 

The fundamental right to be healthy, grow and become productive human beings in their society depends on access to education. Yet, there remains a deeper more sacred right than that...the right to life and liberty, predicated on access to proper food and nutrition. The scourge of hunger in Kenya must be taken out, its bitter roots cut and destroyed. 

Educate all young people to the highest levels possible and create an ethos where farming and food production creates increased economic growth. Societies can only prosper as they rise from poverty and out of the crisis of conflict. 

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Umesh Khatri

Lack of  choice is  considered as poverty. Making bundles of  qualitative/quantiative  goods choose possible is considered as out of  poverty level. World has divided in three categories based in income categories. Really  thinking to bring poor out of poverty level  their income paradigms most shift in all three world bringing the concept of sustainability and green economy  concern project is solution to get better income to  leave the poverty behind in urban , semi urban and rural area of any countries forever where bundle of choices must  enlarge.

Umesh Khatri, Nepal

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Raimundo Oliveira

The importance of any project is to have the resources. If it begins using the emotional feelings, it sure won't go to any place. Is a simple logic, poverty should be treated in any political issue, but the way it will be solved must come from whom it will be supported. In some countries which use the one way giving attention to poverty problems will bring them to the starvation. The equilibrium process of bring global strategic to reduce poverty and bring sustainability is stil a utopia. The scalation of population growth is totally disparate from the sustainable livelihood. 

Today, there are many political issues to be solved in many developed countries and social and economical approaches are being remodeled because it seems something is not bringing good results.

Those issues are not related to intelligence degree of one people or color differences, it is about the use of the planet from what it could support in way of living. Does the planet really engage a no one left behind strategy?

 

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HELIO CONTE

Dr. Helio Conte - Universidade Estadual de Maringá - Paraná - Brasil

Sem dúvidas "erradicar a pobreza e não deixar ninguém para trás" é uma meta que vai exigir envolvimento de todos, independente de raças, línguas, governos, cultura, etc. Minha visão de resgatar comunidades pobres foi bem vivenciada na África quando atuei em projeto do PNUD na África, mas precisamente na Guiné-Bissau. Hoje tenho convicção de que qualquer comunidade deve debruçar seus esforços em Educação e Saúde, prioridades que com certeza irão permitir atingirmos essa meta de erradicar a pobreza. O diferencial deve ser a valorização da comunidade, ou seja, ela própria deve criar, inovar e aplicar seus recursos observando e vivenciando suas realidades. Os componentes da comunidade precisam da valorização através de resgates das vivências e na sequência devem ser direcionadas para rebuscar inovações mesmo em ambientes deficitários. Nem toda comunidade pode desejar tecnologia de ponta, mas ela pode almejar, planejar e chegar lá. De imediato ela precisa identificar pontos frágeis e fortes e trabalhar no sentido de construir caminhos viáveis que resgatem sua valorização. Vivenciei que a Educação pode e leva a melhorias consideráveis na saúde, na ordem econômica e no crescimento. Por si só ela tem condições de promover o indivíduo para níveis mais aceitáveis nos padrões de vida, daí não ser aconselhável generalizar projetos que deram certo em determinadas comunidades, cada uma delas tem suas características que devem ser respeitadas.

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Gordon Monday Bubou

For us, rural communities in South-South Nigeria, many will still be left behind even after the expiration of the SDGs. The livelihoods of the people have already been compromised by a polluted environment. On top of this is the huge infrastructure gap--basic amenities such as decent housing, electricity and mobility infrastructure is still far cry. In my opinion, if we must pull everyone out of poverty in this context, we must first ensure that the people have access to those modern infrastructure, repeal the obnoxious Land Use Act and make concrete efforts at redistributing the national wealth in manner that will have the rural communities at the heart of such efforts.

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Muma Mumbi

Greetings, Poverty eradication and leaving no one behind is achievable. I would like to forcus on politics and social and economic growth. Empowerment of people with social skills is a key. Young people may be perceived to be as the lost generation, however, they are able to Carry out a paradigm shift in changing there society's. Young people are the leaders of tomorrow, however politicians make sure that tomorrow never comes. I believe a crucial element for achieving poverty eradication is forcusing on having a comprehensive skill empowerment and necessarily sitting in a class and get a paper, certificate or diploma. Mumbi Muma Student Bsc Economics

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

I fully agree with what Helio Conte comments up here. I live in Argentina so my experience comes from many years of success and failure in our efforts. At the turn of the XXth Century Argentina had a very strong basis as far as the primary and secondary system is concerned, and this was a key factor in the deevelopment Argentina had up to the early fifties (1950's).

Without strong bases in primary and also secondary Education, there can be no significant efforts (moneywise) that can effectively win the unreleting struggle against poverty. However, when cheap politics get mixed up in educational efforts, it's one step ahead and two steps back. All of you know that educational strategies require long periods. It is not a question of one governement, but a question of state policies.

In 2017 efforts in the edicational field are necessary related to the Sustainable Deveopment Goals. And here there is another kind of challenge. Top and medium ranking officials may be willing to move ahead in order to comply with the respective SD GOALS associated with education and struggle against poverty. However, before they can act efficiently and in coordination with the right government departmednts, they must learn about Sustainable Development, which -if one is to judge by ones own experience-it is not something one can be taught overnight.

So, to resume, yes EDUCATION is key in this struggle (health, as Helio says, cannot be separated from Education). And there is work to be undertaken at two levels: that of the officials responsible for coordinating SD GOALS with Education, Health and the Struggle against poverty, and the level where those who are the subject of our struggle need to receive proper primary and secondary education. The kind of jobs the XXIst Century is and will be offering and the gap between educated and under-educated citizens is a key consideration to be incorporated in this most demanding endeavour we are engaged in.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Good morning everybody from Buenos Aires, Argentina. I am Mauricio López Dardaine and this will be my second try regarding adding a comment to this rich dialogue. My first one was rather long and it appears to have vanished in wide space of the Internet. So I'll make this one rather short, see if it sticks and if so comment once more.

To my way of thinking EDUCATION is the key here. And regarding education there are three levels on which to operate. First, there are those officials concerned with coordinating the respective SD GOALS as far as Education is concerned; they need to learn what SD is actually about, not all do know, and this in our experience takes time. Second, there is the education of the educators at both the primary and secondary level. Third, last but indeed not least, there's those at the level of poverty which must receive the benefits of education. At this level, who is able to attend school (or send their childrens to school while their daily concern are food and shelter. And even with food and shelter, there's still the question of having an HORIZON OF HOPE based on facts. Hoe can one be concerned about the education of their children if he does know what they shall have for dinner or how they shall pay their rent.

I will leave my big question marks unanswered until I know whether I'm part of this group.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Voy a intentar por tercera vez, ahora en español en lugar de inglés!

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Cip Cipo • Asesora a la Coordinacion regional y al CD at REPEM - LAC Red de Educacion Popular entre Mujeres Latinoamerica y Caribe from Chile

•       How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?
"Leaving no one behind " is at the heart of the Sustainable Development Objective 4. Its emphasis is on equitable and inclusive education. In order to carry out this objective, it is necessary that structural changes take place in public policies that promote equity, inclusion and overcome the multiple forms of discrimination in education in the framework of the achievement of human rights. In order to address multiple and interrelated forms of discrimination, education and training must be provided to ensure the full, equitable and effective participation of all, but especially girls and women, by removing the barriers to  access to decision-making at all levels.

Education is a human right, and there are barriers for women and girls to have access to a quality of education opportunities throughout life at all levels. Addressing the right to adult education is to contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for exercising their rights, and to provide diverse knowledge to contribute to the development of society, and above all, to the establishment of peace, responsible citizenship and sustainable development.

"Leaving  no one  behind " means giving a important  role to adult education, literacy and lifelong education. It should be a priority in all the goals, targets and indicators of the Post 2030 Agenda. But adult education and literacy not only have to be focused on acquiring the skills for the labor market, but must be oriented towards the construction of full citizenship, especially for indigenous, Afro-descendant and rural women. Adult education, an integral part of the right to education, is a universal right, essential for achieving multiple socio-economic and cultural goals and human rights to participate in the transformative changes of  the country,  at national and local level.

Education  policies should be inclusive, non-discriminatory, guarantee gender equality and fulfill the right to education of girls and boys, young people and adults as geographic location, ethnicity, age, disability, migration, marital status, and other relevant factors. This means that the planning and monitoring of ODSs must take into account the different realities of countries and regions at national and local level and include  t the participation of  the OCS , women's organizations, stakeholder groups and rights holders. The approach must be intersectional, promote dialogue and recognize indivisibility and interdependence in all human rights in the 17 ODS

Using this approach will effectively contribute to leaving  no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs

 

Dr. Abdalatif Hassan • Economic Analyst at UNDP from Sudan

In Sudan, data and information on poverty dates back to 2009 (before the secession of the South). According to Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 46.5 percent of the population of Sudan is found to fall below the poverty line, with 26.5 percent of the urban population and 57.6 percent of the rural population falling below the poverty line. Consequently, new data on poverty and poverty mapping is precondition for eradicating poverty, leaving no one behind and reaching first those who are furthest behind in Sudan.

Everton Teddy Igori • Executive Director at Trippinz Care Inc from United States

End poverty in all its forms everywhere if we creat better opportunities for farmers and focus on the needs, In 2015 World leaders promised to put girls and women first when they signed up into sustainable Development goals to end poverty, fix climate change and tackle inequalities, Girls are women are disproportionately affected by these challenges and are key to building resilient communities to with stand them, that's why we need to ensure world leaders and the Secretary General of the United Nations to listen to the voices of the girls and women, put them first in policies and plans 

Dr. Abdalatif Hassan • Economic Analyst at UNDP from Sudan

In Sudan data and information on poverty dates back to 2009 (before the secession of the South). According to Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 46.5 percent of the population of Sudan is found to fall below the poverty line, with 26.5 percent of the urban population and 57.6 percent of the rural population falling below the poverty line. Consequently, new data on poverty and poverty mapping is precondition for eradicating poverty, leaving no one behind and reaching first those who are furthest behind in Sudan.

Dr. Abdalatif Hassan • Economic Analyst at UNDP from Sudan

In Sudan data and information on poverty dates back to 2009 (before the secession of the South). According to Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 46.5 percent of the population of Sudan is found to fall below the poverty line, with 26.5 percent of the urban population and 57.6 percent of the rural population falling below the poverty line. Consequently, new data on poverty and poverty mapping is precondition for eradicating poverty, leaving no one behind and reaching first those who are furthest behind in Sudan.

Elif Yasemin Azaz • Volunteer at Architecture For All Association of Turkey from Turkey

In my opinion, poverty eradication is a very serious and necessary effort to make people's lives better and make the world a better place. It should be a priority. UN's works on poverty eradication provides concrete results and this is what is needed to master a problem like poverty.

Policy adjustment needs to be considered gradually. Also there should be a global strategy and sub-strategies for different regions that have different dynamics. Furthermore, poverty eradication works should be not only at the policy level but also should be concrete works that provide more certain and quick results (this should be tought like a catalyzer, too). I have given examples of what I meant in the "New Evidence and Innovations in Poverty Eradication Efforts" section.

 

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New User

Erradicating poverty and contribute for  human wellbeing is a millenium objective that is not  yet  achieved. it depends on learning and educacion strategies that have to be directed to all the cytizens since the first school until graduariam and post graduation.

it's urgent to invest on capacity building to prepare and empower  citizens capable of  taking the leadership in their own countries . All the actions conducting to better education and learning will highly contribute to a better and equitable society from each country capable of cope with the needs resulting from the globalization. A more educated and knowledge based society will decisively  contribute to eradicate poverty. Learning opportunities for all, including women is a prerequisite for  women empowerment and thus for the building of  a society with equal rights for all.

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eric guozhong zhang • social affairs officer at United Nations DESA from China
  • How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?

Dear Pedro moderator and colleagues,

I am Eric Zhang a Social Affair Officer from DESA here in New York. I would like to share some thoughts on the question discussed, in regard to disability.

Persons with disabilities make up an estimated 15 per cent of the world’s population, or 1 billion people, of whom an estimated 80 per cent live in developing countries.

The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the focal point on disability within the UN system has been supporting the General Assembly, ECOSOC and Commission for Social Development in policy development concerning persons with disabilities and their inclusion in society and development.

According to the latest resolution adopted recently by the General Assembly of the United Nations ( 71/165, adopted on 11 November 2016)  entitled “ Inclusive development for persons with disabilities “ , persons with disabilities are disproportionately affected by poverty.

While considerable progress has been made, mainstreaming of disability in development agenda and efforts remains a challenge which in turn impede the endeavour of achieving the development , eliminating poverty in all forms for all everywhere ( SDG1).

Available experience and evidence that DESA and others did clearly show that more efforts are needed to strengthen further the normative and operational links to effectively integrate the rights, needs , perspectives and contributions of persons with disabilities in our development policies and programmes.

Inclusion of persons with disability and promoting inclusive development for all has been well established as one of human right obligations by the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities which is a legally binding instrument that has been ratified by 172 countries already.

To narrow the existing gaps between the international norms and development practices, the economic and social imperative to mainstream disability shall be further appreciated by policy makers and development practitioners of all sectors.

This means, disability must be incorporated and mainstreamed in all relevant development policies and practices ranging from poverty reduction strategies , to urban planning of housing and human settlements, public transportation/mobility, public spaces and services such as water and sanitation,  to disaster risk responses and resilience building in all our communities as well as in follow ups , monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the SDGs as well as other development agendas such as the Sendai Framework on Disaster Reduction and New Urban Agenda.

In this regard, it is also important to understand and actively promote universal design and environmental accessibility as a collective good that remove barriers, equalising opportunities and facilitating meaningful and effective participation by a broader spectrum of general population, including older persons,  persons with disabilities and many more as both agents and beneficiaries of society and development.

 

 Relevant UN documents, resources and work of the UN in the field of disability can be found at UN ENABLE website: www.org/disabilities

General Assembly resolutions including the most recent one entitled “Inclusive development for persons with disabilities (A/RES/71/165)” https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/resources/general-assembly.html

Accessibility and Development: Mainstreaming disability in the post-2015 development agenda (DESA publication, ST/ESA/350)

Global status report on Disability and Development ( DESA, Prototype 2015, Unedited)

Envision 2030: 17 Goals to transform the world for persons with disabilities at the following link: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030.html

 

 

 

 

 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Corruption has crept in all aspects of life.Managing the finances,and currency and their legality world over has to be systematically dealt by the leaders.Education supposed to be a service sector,registered in several countries as a society or social organisation with no loss no profit organisation and dedicated to research for betterment.

But in reality the fees collected,the projects managed,the funds received from federal agencies are not accounted and yearly financial returns and tax is not paid.This has created surplus monies with the so called societies.The loopholes are to be plugged every country.The industries also are on the look out for parking their surplus monies in safe un-taxable heavens,to keep their families safe when regime changes.

But the unethical attitude is that the money is their's ,which is not true.So creating corporate governance to make declaration of profit and loss, scrutiny of the produce and the utility of products for society is important.

Here are my novels-Fiction-

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Corruption is a problem only when it's in the mode of exaction. When officials employ their expertise in enabling facilitations for people to progress and participate in the social progress through an alternative method that doesn't corrupt the system without simply rejecting their claim to not have met the stipulates or criteria, they are justified to receive money as charges. Here, through their expertise they enable progress. Neither do they corrupt the system nor do they corrupt the freedom, progress or living of others. 

This is why the universal declaration of human rights says, everyone without any, discrimination, has the right to EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK. Without stipulating the salary through pay scale and when the system is not stipulated to a periodic elevation that's based on merely on seniority, why would one earn money in black that's neither of visible use to him nor has a value of self-worth? 

For example, say, I need to start up a business. The procedure to get my start-up registered needs a list of documents as identity and proof. I may not be having the asked document but I may have some other means to proof the details. If the concerned official could ease out this complication and through the process with an alternative that serves the purpose, he/she may regulate me accordingly without burdening with pressures or complications and collect a specific amount as charges. Later, he/she can claim for extra salary apart from the scale of pay stipulated for his/her designation by the government as they have enabled a facilitation through their expertise that would benefit the state's progress and that would increase the employment opportunities of the state (equal pay for equal work) or could add this facilitation enabled through their expertise their credential for elevation. This would eradicate the need for earning money in deceit. 

In India, we had an initiative to account the unaccounted money. Bringing the unaccounted money back would have been possible if it was offered to accountability with 1% of tax on it. 50% tax to accountability would take away huge amount of what one has as his economic value or life standards forcing them to resist from bringing the amount held back to accountability whereas if we could account it with just 1% as tax it would be meagre for individual but huge for government as 1% of the entire 2 billion US dollar stated just by Swiss bank accounts would be 20 million US dollar. 1% tax could be for individual who wish to invest the amount in entrepreneurial activities that would facilitate the nation to increase its job openings, increase citizen’s living standards &multiply the economic &developmental value of the nation. Others who wish to have that for their personal use may pay a bit higher percentage as a tax. Same is the case to account the money thats here in India, If the concerned individual has invested the money in an entrepreneurial or in the nation’s activities that scopes to development we can have it accounted for 1% tax. This would help everyone to volunteer their unaccounted money as no one would want to live in pressure or have money that serves no purpose. Government shouldn’t average the prosperity of its citizen when it progresses the value of the nation. Averaging citizen’s prosperity averages the nation’s prosperity.

Instead, when we take an control measure imposing authoritative approach, people would find an alternative way to either safeguard the money or themselves from the system. This in no way is going to serve the purpose or bring in the change we intended. 

Meanwhile, when the system isn’t reformed, the accounted money is yet again going to be spent on public works that again has a chance for hoarding that repeats the cycle.   

Taxing people is not democracy. Why do we tax people with the money they earn out their work? Government can collect charges for the facilitation it enables to people, it cannot tax them periodically for their progress and prosperity. It is not ethical for government to tax people for helping in its development. 

Fees is another exaction but expecting education to be absolutely free on the other hand in is also a kind of exaction. Today, second generation learners in a family can take care of their learning independently with the help of their parents. With, Internet information resources is thrown open to different depth, learning individual is free to communicate with experts at any corner of the world for their guidance, to them education can be free. For first generation learners who completely stay dependent on a system for their education needs to pay for the facilities provided to them for their education. Teaching is not absolutely a service. They don't restrict or limit their expertise, they teach until the learner is confident about perceiving the concept in full for his best, they are always available to help you, by this, they attain the state of service but basically for the work they do, they need to be recognised and rewarded. 

The same is the case to volunteerism. The work of volunteers cannot be sidelined as service.  They are also accounted in the per capita income, GDP, GNP and development calculations of the world. Volunteering is not free service, volunteering is a concept where individual forwards on their own to contribute their skill or expertise in progressing the world without being asked to in a place that needs it. It's an act of slavery to exact potentials or labour from an individual for free to benefit others. Officially including the service volunteered by an individual for their employment opportunities would both reduce the unemployment rate, poverty and even hunger.

Ensuring that everyone within the governance is enabled with due opportunities for living and development is the basic responsibility of the government. By Constitution and by UDHR, government's basic and foremost duty is to enable facilitations claimed by their citizens for their progress and prosperity in line with their individuality. With democracy, people are no more dependent on society for their living neither could they be governed by the social norms. It's the duty of the concern representative of the constituency to up bring the ignorant who are tied down by the social structures and social norm in the rural area to get connected with the government and cognise themselves with the responsible use of their freedom and the freedom they have in designing their means to fulfil their responsibility towards the world that enabled them with their living.

Helping others to be skilful, helping others in their work and progress is humanity. Helping others with their needs while keeping them idle and unemployed is not humanity but an injustice we are doing to them and the world. 

“The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom.” - Isaac Asimov

“It would be possible to describe everything scientifically, but it would make no sense; it would be without meaning, as if you described a Beethoven symphony as a variation of wave pressure.” - Albert Einstein

Today education is purely and merely science. The spread of unethical means is because we see everything as science and engineer the world for our desires and wishes. Research is not finding what an everything under the world is made up of, understanding how it evolved is science but investigating on the elements, its constituents, the percentage of constituents in it to the accuracy of .00000001% is too much of science. It shows the arrogance and egoism of humanity to take control over nature that existed several centuries before the origin of humanity and that which stands as the place of origin for everything in and around the world.

Even though we have value education as a subject in our curriculum, how much of importance are we giving to it? How much importance is given to language for the reason of it not being calculated for our cut-off? Towards what is our facilitation of education focused on? Is it on the gain of knowledge or on fulfilling the requirements of the system to get a high percentage of scores? Research is not proving the already existing facts but research is about finding a new way to resolve the problem existing in the world with the knowledge gained. Than testing the knowledge of students through a written examination that assesses how thorough they are with the content of the book, if the students are facilitated for an assessment that tests how skilled they are in practicalizing their knowledge through a research project or dissertation that resolves an existing problem in the world would make both assessment and facilitation of education purposeful. 

When the stipulates of the world are set free for the purpose and when education is reformed from being industrious that manufactures human potential for a set specification to a place that nurtures the human potential for their individuality, neither there would be unethical activities corrupting the world, nor there would be lack of opportunities impoverishing the populace. 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

 I /we in the society observe to condemn the way

 the bribe sections wants to get legalized by

 peanut taxes on a money which do not belong 

 to them.We have international asset recovery 

mechanism in UN and any word of such that by

 taking 1% tax on the illegal monies is undermining 

the polices for which we are working.Please read detailed 

discussion in the world we want about the matter.

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

What we meant to say is that UN employee can receive money for their talent beyond the stipulated salaries. 

Wonderful.

So  the king and business man draws money beyond what is stipulated for them even in a democratic set up for his /her services.

We have enacted the copy right laws and Knowledge as Individual right,Law.

So the question of not trying such of  the corrupt employees dose not arise and is part of changing democratic system any where in world,including the developed world.

Regarding education a licensed system to draw monies as they wish,it is not for education,under society rule.They need to create a company under the company act.

Thank you for your inputs.I am in all the discussions of UN related since 8 or more years.

But i have found no reason or logic,or contents in the arguments advocated,and so believe they are your own and not of UN.Thanks again.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Kindly go through my post once again. Nowhere I spoke about legalising bribe. Bribe is when someone dishonestly persuade to act in favour for someone illegally with money and gift.  All that I said was, than rejecting a claim for progress for not meeting the procedure, it can be facilitated with an alternative that meets the purpose. There's nothing illegal or dishonest here. 

1% tax would look small but 1% from a population of 1 billion or more is a huge one. When our intention is to bring the unaccounted money to accountability, that no more remains as an individual's personal wealth. It comes as an investment to serve the nation with its progress and in increasing its employment opportunities.

Universal declaration of human rights says that

• everyone and endowed with the right to reason and conscience,

• no one shall be subjected to heavier penalty,

• everyone without any discrimination has right to equal pay for equal work,

• everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection,

• everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control

provided that exercise all these right be in a progressive manner that doesn't destroy other's freedom to life and prosperity. 

Any secondary policy, charter or guideline that undermines the primary principles guidelined through the fundamentals automatically looses its validity.

Mistakes are to be punished/ Mistakes are to be regulated and corrected, which in these is democratic? While confiscating something that has been a part in building one's life standards or accomplishment, aren't we pulling a brick that has a possibility of shattering the entire building? Along with the accusation and confiscation, we brand them corrupted seizing their future to end. Is it not a way that pushes one to poverty? How did he acquire the wealth? Did they print the currency on their own? Did they steal it from others reservatory without their knowledge? It was possible for the loopholes in the system. Than letting one to benefit through the loopholes in the system that compromises on the quality of service, why don't we legally enable benefits to one who strengthens the system by multiplying its facilitations? Here I am not talking about bribe or anything that lets one be dishonest to his values or place of work or work ethics. Eg: To reject an application of an industry for its activity to pollute the environment, the official can guide them with methodologies that will help them to treat the refuses of their activities without harming the environment. Or to reject an application because it did not annexe listed proof of address or identity, the official can pass the application by asking the applicant to provide any document that would prove the same. It's not essential that proof should be made through the list of document stated by the department. Here we are not doing anything illegal or dishonest but easing the process for individual in a legal and just manner. 

Not just the UN employee, anyone whose work serves the system or organisation above the stipulated job responsibility and beyond the framework of duties and stipulations set to him gets salary beyond their stipulated scale of pay. 

"So  the king and business man draws money beyond what is stipulated for them even in a democratic set up for his /her services." I don't know what or who is referred to as king here. 

This is what is your responsibility, this is what is your pay. We don't bother about what you have to provide, you may have skills that could serve and progress the state above what is stipulated to you, we don't bother about it. You may not be able to meet the stipulated responsibility but you may have a different methodology to serve the same purpose, we neither do bother about it. This is what is stipulated for you, abide by it even if you are best at a different technique or way of work and stick to it even if you have expertise more than the expected, else leave the system. Is this democratic? This is both autocracy and slavery.

Copyright law, intellectual property right (IPR) are all a tool to reserve the recognition of a work to the concerned individual. It doesn't reserve the work or content, it just reserves and permanents recognition to the concerned individual for the work. Is it not a basic duty or morale of a society to credit the work to its author or inventor? Why do we need legal imposition for everything? Isn't it an unfortunate thing that the world need legal impose or force for it be humane? If we are to commercialise the concept found by others we are bound to share the earnings as royalty or even if we are to commercialise a part of the concept or if we are to commercialise others content elaborating and furthering the concept contributed by others, due share must be given to them as royalty. It's basic. It's the pathetic situation of world's human values and ethics to demand a legal enforcement for its populace to live justified

The limitation of Copyright law or IPR ends there. It cannot prevent others to proceed the findings of a copyrighted or registered content. It cannot prevent others to take the registered content as reference for their work. Knotting down content and progress isolated and halfway through rights is injustice we are doing to the world and to the concept of education. When your role in a concept for your exposure, skill and expertise ends with 30%  it doesn't mean that it has to be left there as such. If another individual has the expertise to advance it to 60% or 90% he can do it by crediting the 30% to the individual from who he got the baton in the relay. Having done to 60 or 90, if another individual has the expertise to advance the concept to 120 or 200, he can by crediting the individual who passed the baton to him that would eventually credit the contributor who initiated the concept. This is progress (development). Copyrights and IPRs register and reserves recognition in the process. 

I never said, education can exact money as they wish. I just said people working in education system needs to paid for their work for which the facilitating system need to generate revenue and can collect fees from the student.

All my points are very well supported by the fundamentals to which the functioning of UN and its organisations are anchored on. My points are all very well in line with goals and vision set by UN. None of my suggestion violates the principles of UN. 

My participation here is as an individual who is a citizen of the globe and a part of UN who has the responsibility to spread its principle. 

None of my comments are stipulative or ruling, its general and based on the underlying principles of the government. If the logics, reason and contents in my post cannot be found or understood, I can explain it, if your perspective is elaborated and the points that aren't clear is highlighted. Even if a violation is found, I can justify it if it's highlighted, as the ultimate aim of this discussion is to bring out a social progress that benefits the world at large without leaving anyone behind. Leaving no one behind doesn't mean we can pull the ones ahead down to the place within the majority paralleling the populace. We should find progressive means by which we can lift everyone above the set standard rising our goals and vision to next level. 
 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

“When officials employ their expertise in enabling

 facilitations for people to progress and participate in the

 social progress through an alternative method that doesn't 

corrupt the system without simply rejecting their claim to not have

 met the stipulates or criteria, they are justified to receive

 money as charges”.‘While in service of any corporation ,not 

even of government or UN system this receipt of money is balently

 illegal and unacceptable.’  

“I need to start up a business. The procedure  to get my start-up registered needs a list of documents as identity and proof.

 I may not be having the asked document but I may 

have some other means to proof the details. If the 

concerned official could ease out this complication 

and through the process with an alternative that serves

 the purpose, he/she may regulate me accordingly without 

burdening with pressures or  complications and collect a specific 

amount as charges. Later, he/she can claim for extra salary

 apart from the scale of pay stipulated for his/her designation

 by the government as  they have enabled a facilitation through

 their expertise that would benefit the state's progress and that 

would increase the employment opportunities of the state

 (equal pay for  equal work) or could add this 

facilitation enabled through their expertise their credential for elevation. 

This would eradicate the need for earning money in deceit”.   

A personal favor is out of judicial system in any country  and can be 

reprehensible.It  has to be universal.

These are aganist the legal systems which 192 nations have signed at Hauge. Where another UN body is located.Kindly request you two go through the UN system,bodies in action.The principle on which each body works and how each system is inter woven with the other. 

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Sir, I think you did not go through my post fully. I have explained both these aspects that you have highlighted in my second reply itself.

"When officials employ their expertise in enabling facilitations for people to progress and participate in the social progress through an alternative method that doesn't corrupt the system without simply rejecting their claim to not have met the stipulates or criteria, they are justified to receive money as charges."

"While in service of any corporation, not even of government or UN system this receipt of money is balently illegal and unacceptable."

I clearly mentioned that the employee could charge their service. When money is received as a charge for service, it goes to the system or organisation from where the individual could claim salary equalling his/her pay. Demanding money for doing a job wouldn't bring the currency to accountability that eventually reduces the economic value of the nation but the same is claimed as charges, it comes into accountability ensuring all the money printed by the nation is in the flow for the nation's developmental activities. 

In the routine, we have set the system to a specific standard. We have imposed people with stipulations that they need to meet the set eligibility criteria for their development through the design of system stipulated by us, the government does nothing to ease their process or include them in the facilitations enabled to them. It's people who take up all pressures, stress, hardship and find a way out for themselves amongst the limited opportunities enabled to the entire population. At last, when they have reached a place in their life, government demands a share from the earning that they accomplished by themselves sweating their blood out. We just don't tax for their earning but also tax their earning and accomplishments to balance the subsidies we enable to the needy. How justified, acceptable and legal is this? Enable prosperity to all by facilitating democracy and collect charges from the individual to whom the service was facilitated. Don't overburden a group of populace bringing their accomplishment to general treasury to benefit those in need? What is the responsibility of government shared here?

Also, are the taxed amount into progressive use? No, they are yet again into the system that has a loophole for hoarding, that again puts the money to unaccountability, depriving both the economic and social value of the nation.

Why wouldn't it be acceptable or legal to ease the facilitations of the citizens to their individual skill, ability, and talent by duly regulating their claims in line with the fundamentals adopted and nominally charge for the service rendered to them in enabling them with their progress or prosperity? We (government) take part and charge for service rendered. Isn't it the duty of government to include individuals in their facilitations? Isn't it the duty of government to help all of its citizens to progress and accomplish prosperity in their life which would cumulate to form the value and progress of the nation?

Again this cannot be considered as personal favour, as favouring is when we blindly facilitate people with whatever they ask, violating the fundamental principles but facilitating people with the claims regulating it in line with the fundamental principles and by orienting the people's activities in line with the fundamentals adopted is the job responsibility of the government officials and social responsibility of all components constituting the world. 

Don't we have a concept of service charge? Doesn't bank charge service charge for using its service? Like mobile alert, for facilitating the customers with loan? Are they illegal? Doesn't restaurants charge service charges for the service they make? 

"I need to start up a business. The procedure to get my start-up registered needs a list of documents as identity and proof. I may not be having the asked document but I may have some other means to proof the details. If the concerned official could ease out this complication and through the process with an alternative that serves the purpose, he/she may regulate me accordingly without burdening with pressures or complications and collect a specific amount as charges. Later, he/she can claim for extra salary apart from the scale of pay stipulated for his/her designation by the government as they have enabled a facilitation through their expertise that would benefit the state's progress and that would increase the employment opportunities of the state (equal pay for equal work) or could add this facilitation enabled through their expertise their credential for elevation. This would eradicate the need for earning money in deceit."

"A personal favor is out of judicial system in any country and can be reprehensible. It has to be universal."

Personal favour is when the official grants me permission by processing my application without the alternative document I have for proof. This is reprehensible. But when the official processes my application with the alternative document of proof I have with me, thats an improved way of fulfilling their job responsibility along with fulfilling their social responsibility. And this alternative facilitation wouldn't just stop with me but for all approaching for facilitation. How could this be called as a personal favour? 

"Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large."

When the fundamentals of the government says everyone are free and entitled to receive opportunities to development for their individuality, our approach of standardising and stipulating the system and reserving opportunities to few as quota that violates the fundamental principles by uniforming the facilitation and discriminating people based on their gender, religion and caste is a personal favour which unfortunately is considered legal by the nation. 

Enabling opportunity to all for their individuality in line with the fundamental principles relaxing the stipulates and rules of the system is responsibility whereas enabling opportunity to few violating the fundamental principles, stipulates and rule is corruption or personal favour. There is a difference. 

Be it UN body at Hague, New York, Geneva, Vienna, Rome or Nairobi, everywhere and all nations are mandated to work for the fundamentals signed during its establishment that guides their functioning for the purpose of its establishment. 

I do understand the principle on which the system works and how they are connected to one another. I am just clearing the misinterpretation we all generally have that puts our system to dysfunction despite all our efforts and resources investments. 

Dr. Abdalatif Hassan • Economic Analyst at UNDP from Sudan

Eradicating poverty in Sudan should be differently considered through an integrated approach because many areas in Sudan is witnessing a huge number of refugees, IDPs and returnees whom are in need of humanitarian aid before any development efforts. According to OCHA (January 2017) In North Darfur, about 12,000 returnees in the Baashim/Tima area (Kutum locality) need more assistance. In South Darfur, 3,000 IDPs currently taking refuge near the UNAMID team site in Khor Abeche and in Karamje village wish to return to the village. The overlapping between the development and humanitarian nexuses is a challenge in Sudan towards any efforts for eradicating poverty in Sudan. Sudan should finalize its PRSP as road map for eradicating poverty in Sudan.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

It's the duty of the government to take care of the productive living of its people. The initial help for settlement can be provided by the government by analysing the skill people individually have to contribute the nation with. 

Desertification is identified to a serious problem in Sudan. 

Causes of desertification in Sahel:

The impact of global warming and human activities are presented in the Sahel. In this area, the level of desertification is very high compared to other areas in the world.

All areas situated in the eastern part of Africa (i.e. in the Sahel region) are characterized by a dry climate, hot temperatures, and low rainfall (300–750 mm rainfall per year). So, droughts are the rule in the Sahel region. (Source - Wikipedia)

The hot temperatures caused by the deposits of carbon caused by human activities can be diluted through converting the heat into electricity by the concept of thermoelectricity. It is more economical and powerful than solar power generation that converts light into electricity. How this works, let me put the concept in brief without elaborating much in detail as to keep this post as short as possible. Two different conducting wires are connected in series leaving the start and end point unconnected, the wires are chosen depending on their characteristics of thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. Let's call the connected series as cell. Most widely, the wires used are copper-iron combination or aluminum-iron combination. The output of former combination is less than the output from the later. The output will be more in an graphite-aluminum combination. One end of this cell is placed on a material that absorbs atmospheric heat, say a soap stone, black painted surface, concrete block or anything that could absorb heat. The other end is laid on an insulated surface, say a surface with heat resisting paint. The point is that both the end of cell must be placed on material that has a difference in its temperature for the cell to produce electricity. This set up when placed will generate electricity that can be stored in a battery that has an option to be connected to the house's main terminal. 

During colder times, households can use traditional means for electricity and during hotter times, we can use the atmospheric heat for energy generation. Its simple to solve the climate change, we needn't compromise the advantage enabled to us by technology.

This would condition the environment for agriculture and slower the speed of desertification eventually putting it to stop.

Where ever there is famine due to drought, this technology can be used to condition the environment. Places, where prosperity and progress are affected by climate change, can use this technology to gain back their natural environment. Agricultural activities would increase if this technology is used to stabilise the environment.

Government through United Nations can seek help in stabilising the problems it's suffering with after which its the duty of government to help the people in enabling opportunities they need to meet their needs and establishing their living standards. Aiding money is not the solution, it dilutes the system without serving any purpose, Aiding opportunity is the best help that strengthens the system enabling it to progress purposefully. Poverty can just not be eradicated with financial grants. A nation will be with void if its approach towards poverty eradication is made through subsidy. No problem can be solved without addressing its cause. Covering the leak in a pipe with cloth will be a temporary solution, once the covering is taken pipe will still be leaking. 

So it's important that the government and citizens are oriented towards their responsibility, concentrating on making the nation productive through its forte of resources and skills than focusing on powers and economising of resources without including the people. 

To address the overlap between development and humanitarian nexus, the government needs to focus on the potential resource it has. Refugees, migration is not be considered as a problem but an aid for the region in its development. You aid them with resources they aid back development to you. Instead of idling them with surviving assistance, when we aid them with living assistance they add to the GDP  and progress of the nation. Development is itself in human welfare, we see it as a challenge because we see everything under the world as economy. When we see development as social progress that enables economic progress and humanitarian aid as enabling opportunities for the social progress, overlap will become interlink that solves the problem of poverty than being a challenge for poverty eradication efforts. 

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Harrison Cole

Poverty eradication with the aim of leaving no one behind can only be achieved if there are strong global strategies to stop or reduce corruption are put in place by world leaders. Many people are poor due to high corruption around the world; people in leadership and their associates around the world amass all the wealth that belongs all for themselves, as a result there are high poverty rate that lead to poor health condition, under education, early marriage, high maternal  mortality etc.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Poverty is not because of the world, it's because of the system we have set the world to function with. Democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people, here "People" is not a group of individuals clubbed together on a distinct common identity but every single individual person of the globe. There are several misinterpretations for which the world is suffering from so many conflicts, unrests, problem, inequalities and disaster. The world had been through different forms of government since its origin, at the beginning, it was band society, then it was tribal groups, civilisation, monarchy, kingdom, colonialism, democracy and now it's in the phase of global governance. Until colonialism, the governance was based on cultural, religious and social norm where people were ruled by the head for the decision of the leader or the king. Colonialism brought about the needed transformation with it that dissolved the structural societal hierarchy and included everyone through the system of common facilitation - It enabled education to all which prior was reserved for a specific social group, it enabled employment for all in every sphere which prior to it was structured where people worked only in the sphere assigned to their group. The natives couldn't foresee or see the help colonialism did to them and feared of being enslaved that they resisted to the changes and reformations of the colonial rule, this slowed down the pace of transformation. When resistance increased, focus got shifted from the reformation to suppress the resistance that ceased the purpose and progress. Natives fought for freedom and then came the period of democracy that set governance to a principled based form where people were governed for the fundamentals and by its principles. 

Since we forgot to realise this transition, the new form of governance was formed based on the precedence. By paper government is set for democratic principles, by outlook, the government is set on the works and frames of colonialism and by functioning, it was set on procedures of the precedence that we inferred from the form of governance previous to colonialism, ultimately, restricting democracy as just the people's right to vote. This clearly evinces the state of anarchy. 

We got stagnated at the same place, even after 65+ years of independence we are yet to realise what a democratic form of governance truly is but nature did not stop, it progressed and today the world is fully scoped with the environment needed to establish global governance. Actually, it should have been global governance from colonialism, but we took a small fall for our ignorance. Analysing the transition of government over the period of its evolution we can find that we had been through one complete cycle, Separate individuals formed a small group putting a start to the concept of governance through band society, then people with similar or cohesible living pattern and norm further grouped to form a slightly larger tribal groups, tribal groups with cohesible living pattern, norms and groups with skills serving the resources and works of the region grouped together to form civilisation, the same way civilisation grouped under monarchy, monarchic governance conquered places forming kingdom, then the division of groups largely united erasing their regional distinction through colonialism. The next eventuality should have been global governance where individuals would have been nurtured with the needed qualities through colonialism but for our ignorance and resistance we took a break that divided unified regions into independent nation and fortunately we were introduced with democracy that mandated the formation of new governance to be on and for the adopted fundamentals, else with the pattern we see now, we would have dramatically regressed aback with two forms, to monarchy. Civil unrest, internal conflict, the recent incident of the president refusing to pass on the responsibility to the elected president are all examples for this.

Since, its the mindset of monarchy that is spread all through the world that is visible in some places and invisible in many, we are unable to make the progress in completing the cycle. The last part of the cycle, the global governance, is the phase where the world will again be independent individuals but this time they will be connected through the fundamentals of Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the constitution of the respective countries with their individual identity. 

It's this nurturance that the nations that got its freedom must have accomplished by now through democracy. As we did not realise the fundamentals, it's time that we pause, look into it, reform our functioning and activities in line with it so that we can progress ahead. Else, we will be moving backwards in the cycle to where we started despite the quality and quantity of efforts we take, current happenings around the world is an evidence for this.

Fixing this issue is easy, we just need to reform the system that we have formulated on our misinterpretation and that the world is set to functioning for the principles adopted through the respective constitution and UDHR. Governance by its etymology is derived from the Greek word "Kybernan" which means to pilot or steer. Hence, Government is a part that steers or pilots the diverse personality and activities of its citizens and region towards the common goal of social progress and prosperity through the common principles adopted through its constitution and UDHR. 

Government is not about economising the resources of the region, the infrastructure of the region, its economic value, technological strength or possession, scientific growth or any of the illusionary factors that we are set with. Government is about providing needed facilities for all its citizens, individually, to nurture their individual personality to a productive form and orienting the same with the resources of the state for its social, economic and environmental progress.

This is what is stated in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 

"Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to
realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality."

Therefore, at first, we need to reform the concept of uniform facilitation that we have formulated our system with, then we need to reform the concept of average through which we formulated the uniform facilitation and then we need to reform the system's approach towards quality standards. Uniform facilitation and average facilitation curtails the totality of the world to a diminutive form belittling the actual possibilities of the world's progress and resources. This excludes the diverse expanse of resources and sources people have for their free development. Next is quality, by meaning, quality of systems nests in its adherence to its purpose. A system is said to be rich in quality, if its all of its activities conforms to the purpose of the system, enabling it to holistically progress in all spheres without any void or imbalance. The approach through which we set the system's quality as the conformity of the system to a set standard, excludes people who don't conform to it.

What is the misinterpretation we have on Uniformity and how does it excludes people's resources and sources for free development? 

We have misinterpreted equality as uniformity. Through Independence when a concept of equality emerged and when it said everyone has equal right to opportunity what it meant was everyone in the globe have the just to claim the government with opportunities they need for their living and progress for their individuality that would enable them to contribute their best for the social, economic and environmental progress of the world. What we interpreted is that everyone has right to be hustled within the opportunity officiated by the government as the common routine which made it uniformity. If we carefully analyse, liberating the inclusion of all through right is thought as democracy, imposing opportunity as what is officiated by the government is autocracy, since both freedom and domination are without any guided principles it eventually ends up in anarchy, stagnating the world at its very place without any progress. The former that which included people enabling them with their freedom to design their living for their individuality through which they could enable social, economic and environmental progress is equality. Here, opportunities are free to people for what they are best at, the use of world's resources is ensured and assured to be productive, we orient the freedom (fundamental rights) enabled to people towards fulfilling their responsibility (fundamental duties). Here the participation of both the government and citizens is mutual and principled for the fundamentals adopted facilitating democracy and progressing the world to next stage (concentric) of the development cycle.

What is the misinterpretation we have on average and how does it excludes people's resources and sources to development? 

We think and thought that setting the world to average will include everyone and will enable development for everyone but we forgot to realise that when 100% is development how could a system set for 50% enable holistic and equitable progress?  We statute the world with uniformity and inorder to facilitate all within the set statutes, we dilute the system with the concept of average. For example, let us take the concept of relative poverty. What is relative poverty? Relative poverty is when people do not enjoy a certain minimum level of living standards as compared to the rest of the population. How is this minimum level of living standard defined? It's through average. We illusionise poverty here, actually poverty is lack or inability of an individual to live up to his aspiration but with uniformity and average, we illusionise poverty as lack or inability of individuals to meet with a standard measure. 

Letting people to decide their life standards and enabling opportunities without limitations and stipulations for people to meet their aspirations in life is equality, it is democracy that ensures the process of development is set dynamic, progressing the environments of the world eternally. Stipulating a new definition within the scopes of officiation enabled is an absolute illusion that let us accomplish nothing in real and for reality. This further solidifies the existence of anarchism.
 
Next is the misinterpretation the world has on the quality and how it excludes people.

Quality is yet another measure of the system that's on illusion. The quality of a system by its meaning is the degree to which the system is holistic in it activities in meeting its purpose. The diverse approach within the system that's all anchored and oriented towards the set purpose and vision ensures nothing is left behind making the progress of the system complete without any void, this defines the quality of the system. Since we had already closed all other doors except the ones we had officiated the access through the concept of uniform facilitation qualifying and defining development at 50% through the concept of average standards, accomplishing quality for its purpose by enabling holistic and full development through the system is not possible. Therefore, what we did is,  we selected specific criteria as the system’s quality from the stipulates we had set to the system to achieve the defined results. Now, quality is measured by the complexity of the system and defined as the cohesion of the system's functioning to the set procedures. For example, quality of education by it purpose is the facilitation of the system that enables everyone to be nurtured to their best for their individual skill and interest. Whereas, quality of education by our definition is the ability of the system to make all student individual enrolled in it to complete their course with the pass mark. We don't bother how if a school is able to produce all pass and if there are state toppers, it has quality. To maintain this quality, we filter individuals with their based on their ability to keep up with the stipulates of the system, affiliating our facilitation process to the “selection-rejection” concept. We include individuals for facilitation based on their performance in an entrance or admission exam. If he/she is able to pass the exam with a good score substantiating their ability to survive the system, they are facilitated with the opportunity, while others are excluded. 

Complexity being a measure of quality is yet another place that forces people to exclusion. Already we have pulled back the prospects of the world to a great extent by homogenising its heterogenetic nature that set its resources and sources to exclusion. Now by including complexity, we further complicate the system making it hard and strenuous for people.  

“As you simplify your life, the laws of the universe will be simpler; solitude will not be solitude, poverty will not be poverty, nor weakness weakness.” - Henry David Thoreau

Hence, it is evident that the problem of poverty is, for the way we have formulated the world to function on our misinterpreted concepts. And it is also clear that poverty eradication is not possible in the current structure of the system as poverty is not just the state of inability of an individual to meet his basic needs (Absolute poverty) or the state of inability of an individual to match the average living standards of a region (Relative Poverty) but, poverty, in general, is inability of an individual to live upto his aspiration at any point of time in his life irrespective of his economic or material status and gains.

To include everyone, leaving no one behind and to eradicate poverty it is important that we reform the system from the stipulations, restrictions and limitations its set with. Poverty cannot be eliminated by enabling subsidy with the tax collected from other, that's exaction. Both by morals and duties, its justified for government to liberalise the stipulates of the system in line with the adopted fundamentals enabling freedom to its citizens in designing a progressive and productive life for their individuality with the resources of the state than to enable them freebies and subsidy by taxing on the facilities and progress of the working individuals to the one who were excluded by the system for its stipulates and procedures. 

Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states,

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

By this article, the government of all nations are mandated to enable education to all of its citizens that would enable them with full development of their personality, education should be free, general and equally accessible to all based on their merit.

Here, again there are chances for us to misinterpret two terms, "general" and "merit". "general' here doesn't mean uniform but it means education should be broad and specification free that would include everyone into the education spectrum for their individual personality, nurturing it to its best form where they can be instilled with the real principles of human rights. 

"Merit" here doesn't mean the grade scored or the ability endorsed in a certificate of merit that given for an individual substantiating through the common system but it means that educational opportunities should be for the individual personality of the individual, for the discipline or combinations of disciplines he/she is inherently best at through interest or inheritance. Merit of an individual is in his individuality that grants him his worth for this originality.

Education shouldn't be restricted to learning through school. Government should include everyone with what they present as their knowledge or learning with due recognition. At first, United Nations University must reform the way it facilitates education, there is no point in United Nations owing a university or UNESCO affiliating with a university when all it has to offer is the same routine followed elsewhere in the world. UN to have a university add a purpose only when it functions to facilitates the principles it has adopted in its fundamentals. Autodidactism was duly recognised in the world before democracy. We had legends who learned for their self for their individual interest and contributed their best for the world's progress. But it's really unfortunate and strange that the world of democracy doesn't facilitate this freedom and restricts education to just school.Liberating the system will do no wrong, it will not hurt the world but it will heal the problems, inequalities and inequities existing in the world adding a fresh pulse and new life to the world. 

Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Same way, employment opportunities needn't just be for what the labour market enables. Jobs needs to be facilitated for the individual's need and not created for the market's need. The former ensures nation's wholesomeness whereas the later assures market's wholesomeness.

Poverty eradication doesn't need money, it needs a government that includes its citizens for facilitation with designation or responsibility they design to serve the nation with their individuality. 

Accommodating refugee and migrants is not about keeping people idle inside shelters and enabling them with their living through aid. Shelters and aids to them can be for induction and once they settle, it's important to enable them to earn their own living through professing the skills and expertise they own. This would aid the country they have settled in terms of both economic and social development. Also, this would add to the development quotient of their native region as GNP. 

The focus for the future must be on how individuals could be included for progress and development through which the nation and the globe can multiply its economies and life standards. 

When our direct focus is on the economy and lifting up the life standards we tend to ignore the link that connects the resources and economies of the nation leaving development unequal and inequited.

Considering all these facts it is clear and obvious that the solution to all problem is reforming our functioning in line with the adopted fundamentals liberating the system from all its illusions and setting it to be individual specific that includes, progresses and prospects prosperity for all individually and equally. 

O'Brien Makore • Programmes Coordinator at Development Reality Institute from Zimbabwe

While a lot of work has been done by a number of governments to eradicate poverty and leaving no one behind; their approach has not been very effective in targeting the genuine impoverished members of the community. The current approaches are mainly targeting the symptoms of poverty instead of the root causes of it. Policies should strive to empower and provide mechanisms to capacitate rural communities to be self reliant in providing for their basic needs by effectively utilising the economic base within their various communities. Instead of adopting 'a one size fit all approach', there is need to understand that the points of departure for various communities are different and require unique local solutions. These solutions can only come to fruition, by engaging directly the affected communities, not their 'spokesperson'. There is need for more grass-root approach in imparting fit-for-purpose skills and knowledge necessary to uplift their wellbeing.

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Ranjani K.Murthy

Strategies for poverty reduction have to be global, and context specific. Percentage of resources going for reducing poverty has to be monitored. Is it adequate? How does it compare with global defense spending?  We need mechanisms like gender budgeting for poverty budgeting and expenditure analysis 

Coming from India wherein density of population and land is unequally distributed barring one or two provinces, it is important that resource distribution is monitored. In urban areas, the rich own 3-4 houses while there is no area for the poor to build- the are asked to live in resettlement far away from the city. There has to be a ceiling on houses in countries where density of population is high. Policies such as allowing non resident Indians to own houses in India have to be reconsidered. Right to house and land (rural areas) is important. Yet another issue is growth of agriculture. Except this year, the growth rate of agriculture has been poor, risk cover not available and terms of trade not in its favour.  This has to be addressed. Agriculture land is being converted for other purpose, one of the reason for which is low viability as well as demand for industries and real estate. Every country has to have a policy of how much land would be for agriculture, manufacturing and services.

Last there are caste and gender specific reasons for poverty. Women are not able to convert education to employment due to gender bias (as well as general problem over supply of graduates).  Dalit women at times face caste discrimination at work. Safe transport, flexible working time and space, child care facilities at work space, safe work space free of harassment etc are a must. Women slip into poverty due to death of spouse, lack of assets on their name, domestic violence, desertion, divorce, polygamy etc 

Poverty reduction requires addressing symptoms, causes of poverty and processes by which poor slip into poverty.  Caste, gender, age disability, identity  etc specific reason for people slipping into poverty have to be addressed. 

 

 

 

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Development activities of a nation must be for the prospects it has. Since countries with developed status accomplished their progress through technology, science and infrastructure, it is not a mandate that development of all nations can be through the same means. It was possible for the nation to be successfully developed because its strength was its human resource that could be employed in technological, industrious and entrepreneurial activities relating to science and technology. 

Nations with developing status were able to partially succeed because their strength solely doesn't rely on human resources, their strength is in their natural resources, if their activities, trade and entrepreneurial ventures are oriented towards these natural resources, they can progress theirselves from the developing status to developed status. When our geographies are conducive for natural activities like agriculture, horticulture and livestock or animal husbandry, majority of our focus must be on it. Nations in the developing category are in the median that can focus its developmental ventures on both natural and technological activities. Whereas the nation that is in the LDC category must majorly rely on it natural wealth for its development. Its focus must largely be on activities relying on nature focusing very little on the technological side, to the amount of agricultural and natural activities carried out in the developed countries. 

This balances the spread of resources for life all around the world. So the arrangement of nature for the balanced and holistic functioning of the world is that regions nature rich geographies takes care of the living needs of the world, the regions with less natural wealth takes care of the technological and sophisticated needs of the world that eases the activities of labor or physical turmoil of the human community. The regions with both the wealth add up to the contributions of the both the regions advancing the world's resources to surplus that assures resource adequacy to facilitate all.

When the world is big enough to accommodate such a huge number of population, how could it not have resources to facilitate all? The problem is that we don't see things beyond the rule or stipulated enabled to us. For agriculture, our source to water resource is just blinded to the river. We don't see any other means even if we have alternatives. The source of groundwater doesn't come to our mind, we don't mind to save rain water to increase groundwater table. Stubble burning was a practice followed where the leftovers after the harvest would be burned instead of ploughing it back to ground for decay. This actually benefits the yield and water retention capacity of the soil as the ash makes the soil porous increasing its capacity to retain water. 

When we see both the process of burning and decaying are same. Burning burns the dead or leftover immediately converted to carbon (ash) and carbon dioxide (emission) whereas in decay over a period of years and decades we convert the left over into carbon (coal) and carbon dioxide (emission). The coal is further combusted for and through human activities adding further amount of carbon-di-oxide. Since Co2 has heat trapping properties we have the problem of climate change. Now when this heat trapped in emitted co2 is converted into electricity through thermoelectricity, the balance can be easily accomplished. 

Even this concept of burning can be used to obtain the porosity of aquifers to reinflate the ground water table as aquifers are nothing but sedimentary or water-bearing layers that permeable for liquids and gases to pass through.

We just fight for our right on resources without being responsible in enabling ourselves with the means we have to it.

So the problem is not actually the resources but the restrictive approach we have towards sourcing it. 
 

Article 17 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights says-
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

The government cannot impose restriction or control on the property owned by its people. whereas it can enable prosperity to all by including them with productive opportunities for their individuality that lets them own a standard of living they aspire with.

Internet is one such boon for almost all the problems discussed here. Settling away from the city limits is a problem because of the distance one is expected to travel daily to access the amenities in city, education and workplace. Today we have online shopping and door step delivery of all amenities from food, groceries to medicine everything can be got at our doorstep. When we reform of system enabling everyone with a living standard adequate for their need and well-being settling in places away from city limits wouldn't be an issue.

Likewise, enabling online platform for work and education would resolve the issue of a time-consuming journey from home to office and back home. It would also increase women's employment by enabling them work from home opportunity, when both parents are working from home they can mutually share household chores between them balancing their time for both their personal and professional life. Online paradigm sets workspace free of harassments.

Enabling individual specific facilitation will prevent individual slipping into poverty due to unfortunate events. 

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Adriana Conconi • Outreach Technical Director at Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative from United Kingdom

How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 

A measure of multidimensional poverty based on the Alkire-Foster method, like the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), can energise a coordinated, effective and multi-sectoral attack on poverty in all its dimensions.

The MPI:

  • Measures acute or moderate poverty in multiple overlapping dimensions
  • Reveals the intensity of poverty
  • Provides a clear, informative poverty headline
  • Tracks change in poverty and its dimensions
  • Enables policy coordination across sectors
  • Can be disaggregated by groups and indicators to show success in leaving no one behind
  • May be mapped to environmental conditions
  • Compares non-monetary deprivations directly, independent of prices, inflation, or currency

The Alkire-Foster method has been used to develop the global MPI, as well as to develop national MPI measures that reflect each country’s local context and policy priorities. The methodology, developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), can be easily implemented.

 

Disaggregation

The MPI and its component indicators, can be disaggregated by any group for which the data source is representative. Usually they are disaggregated by subnational regions, rural-urban areas, some social groups such as indigenous groups or ethnicity, and age cohorts.

Disaggregation is critical because it enables us to identify the poorest groups so that targeted policy interventions can reach them, leaving no one behind. Studying disaggregated analyses over time shows whether these groups are being left behind or are catching up. 

 

Monetary Poverty?

Most countries of the world define poverty as a lack of money. Yet poor people themselves consider their experience of poverty much more broadly. A person who is poor can suffer from multiple disadvantages at the same time – for example, they may have poor health or malnutrition, a lack of clean water or electricity, poor quality of work or limited schooling. Focusing on one factor alone, such as income, is not enough to capture the true reality of poverty.

Comparing the levels and changes in income poverty and multidimensional poverty reveals a complex history, and reinforces the need to complement traditional monetary measures with a multidimensional approach.

Africa, for example, has a smaller number of income poor people than multidimensional poor (388 million versus 544 million, respectively). This is because multidimensional poverty measures reveal aspects of poverty that can go unnoticed if we only consider income. See article here.

 

MPI and the SDGs

Many countries are using the MPI to measure progress towards the first SDG. Here are some reasons why:

  • Leave No One Behind. MPI analysis tracks progress on poverty for different groups. Existing global MPI data allows us to see poverty by, for example, sub-national regions, by rural and urban areas, and by groups such as children, ethnic groups, and caste (ophi.org.uk)
  • Monitor Progress. The MPI is used to track and compare multidimensional poverty over time. National MPIs are used to compare regions and groups within a country; A regional or global MPI can also compare countries.
  • Integrated, coordinated policy. Whether in China or Colombia the MPI is used by senior policy makers to coordinate policy, and to understand and track the impact of their policies on the poor, helping to break down silos and intensify the impact of policy.
  • Universal relevance. National and regional MPI measures are tailor-made. They address moderate or acute poverty and reflect contextual values and definitions. 

 

The MPI can help eradicating all forms of poverty by illuminating for policy makers who is poor, how they are poor and how intensely they suffer poverty. Such detailed analysis will help to achieve a crucial aspiration for the global drive to end poverty: ensuring no one is left behind.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Dear friends,

I'm Mauricio López Dardaine or Mauro for short, from Argentina and have had some trouble posting my earlier comments. I've had a great deal of support from Global, which I thank, and before I try to remember what I wrote some days ago, I wish to see if this pilot comment gets through. So bear with me, please.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Well I see that thanks to Global's support, I'm now in business. Thanks again for the invitation and your support.

LEAVE NO ONE BEHIND: I'll try to give you my rough ideas from an Argentinian background. I'm an industrial engineer, a long time trade and sustainable development consultant, member of the Centre of Education for Sustainable Development at Universidad Austral and have taught at other Argentine universities before. So I may have different, but I hope converging points of view. Even if Argentina's bread basket can feed many "Argentinas", we have around 30 percent of poverty in our country and between 5 to 6 percent people who are actually in dire straits. When the present administration took office on 10 December 2015 their key goal was -and has remained- "zero poverty"; it is aligned with leaving no one behind. We have indeed the means. But Education is key. And this means educating the educators first. However, one of our top doctors in medicine, Facundo Manes, says that to eradicate poverty food, shelter and education are not actually enough. He says that while people who are poor are not able to see beyond the next day "what will I put on the table tomorrow? Am I going to be able to pay the rent in two weeks time? What if I get sick and miss my pay? What if the wife gets sick?" one cannot expect them to be able to think of a future, maybe not for him but at least for his children. If one cannot imagine some kind of future, says Dr. Facundo Manes, education will be lost on him. So Dr. Manes has joined, I can't say exactly in what capacity, an ad hoc team of the government of our most populated province, Buenos Aires. This team is integrated by doctors in medicine, psychiatrists, engineers, architects, teachers, in order to design a more comprehensive approach so as to "leave no one behind". This is what I remember of what he told us last year at the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB) Annual Conference, held in Buenos Aires. I hope these  much abbreviated thoughts of Facundo Manes can contribute to our endeavour.

 

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

That is where the individual specific facilitation of opportunities principled through Universal Declaration of Human Rights has its role.

Freeing the world from the uniform facilitation of average and common routine will include everyone for their individuality without stipulating what they do, how they do and what they get. This problem identified is because of the rule-based facilitation which we have framed by averaging the totality of the world, its scopes and setting the world's functioning on illusion. 

Reforming this rule-based facilitation and functioning to principle-based facilitation and functioning that includes the needs, demands and claims of people for their individual skill, expertise and ability by duly regulating it to progressive means could be a solid resolution to the problem stated. (The difference between rule-based approach and principle-based approach is that the rule-based approach enforces people to live within its officiations whereas the principle-based approach includes all progressive claims of people officiating it with due guidance and regulation) 

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Emmanuel Marfo

1. Many efforts are seen as eradicating poverty but most are leaving children, youth, disables and early young mothers behind. What we need to do is to empower local based organisations to work with the local government to widen the net and identify the disadvantage people empower them and make provision to their needs.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

I've read with interest what many of you have to say. Reading all of it thoroughly is close to impossible (time is our tyrant). I've read what Priya Prabhakar has to say with a great deal of attention. It is clearly not a question of improving averages, it a question of individuals, I do agree with you, Priya. Emmanuel points at empowering locally based organisations. This is very sensible indeed. In Argentina there is a huge net of small and medium size organisations covering a series of needs. These organisations involve voluntary work. Our Argentine society has many flaws. However, it is remarkable that solidarity is not among these flaws. The most interesting thing about these local voluntary organisations is that they run on limited but rather efficiently managed budgets. This leaves no room for corruption (as has been abundantly mentioned one of the top curses as far as aid is concerned). I may mention one I have been a contributor for many years, "Manos Abiertas" (Open Hands).

The interesting thing is that, together with the other efficient locally based organisations, it combines food supply, good structured shelter and education. Education aimed at jobs that are accesible in their environment. For those in need, there is also spiritual and medical support. A wide net of individual supporters provide the monthly funds. I know not if all such organisations are as efficient, but the ones that make a difference are. In recent years "Manos Abiertas" was the example taken to create a foundation whose members and supporters are members of a club with a considerable number of club members and whose siege is the same district. This foundation has incorporated sport (football, hockey, rugby) into their programs. So, yes, Emmanuel you are quite right regarding local organisations. Not many of the organisations in this net receive governmental additional funding, which may be... a blessing in disguise.

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Dr. Abdulghany Mohamed • from Canada

Hello Everyone,

Thanks to the moderators and to the participants for your invaluable contributions. I have enjoyed reading them all and have indeed learned a lot.

Today, I wish to make a suggestion that in order to help mainstream SDG Goal # 1 and its accompanying targets it would be most helpful if a tool was developed/created to facilitate the review of extant and new government policies/initiatives (e.g., laws, programs, projects, foreign investment, etc.) akin to Bhutan's Gross National Happiness (GNH) Policy Screening Tool as well as Switzerland's Sustainability Assessment (SA) framework. Both of these tools are mentioned (on p.50) in the document entitled "Mainstreaming the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Reference Guide to UN Country Teams", prepared by the United Nations Development Group, February 2016 and posted recently by the moderators.

The proposed anti-poverty screening/assessment tool would help policy makers identify systemic hurdles/challenges as well as enablers of anti-poverty initiatives by not only assessing existing government policies, etc., but by also proactively anticipating and highlighting measures that need rectifying or strengthening (i.e., if not done would undermine the attainment of Goal # 1).

The proposal is predicated on several assumptions. First, I believe that adoption of the tool would highly depend on political will as implementing such a tool could potentially elicit resistance by some interests. Secondly, I believe that it is best to develop a tool for one SDG goal at a time for simplicity's sake as well as for buy-in by the disparate stakeholders. Lastly, for the tool to be successfully deployed/employed, good governance (including transparency and individual and institutional accountability) is very crucial.

To be sure, this suggestion raises/begs the questions:

(a) Who is to develop a prototype of such a tool that could then be adopted and adapted (mutatis mutandis) by governments around the world?

(b) Who would champion the adoption of such a tool?

(c) What lessons can we draw from the implementation of other extant tools; e.g., the ones in place in Bhutan and Switzerland alluded to earlier?  

I'll end here and thanks for your attention; and looking forward to hearing from you.

Cheers,

Abdulghany Mohamed, PhD

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Cecilia Maruta • Project Coordinator :Social Welfare at City of Windhoek from Namibia

Poverty manifest in different forms and situations.In order to make sure that no one is left behind,it is important to assess why certain people are poorer than others.Some people like older people,unemployed youth,people with disabilities and women are vulnerable to poverty because of their  age,physical abilities and other commitments in their daily lives that hinder them to fully participate in economical and social activities of their choices. Programmes that target these people has the potential to address some barrier that make them more vulnerable to poverty.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Cecilia points rightly at why are some people poorer than others??? It is a very good question, Cecilia. And you give some hints in the right direction. Of course, it is still EDUCATION, especially at the primary and pre-primary level that has a strong influence on what you become later in life.

We may be repeating some concepts already discussed among us these days. But it is part of this well organised brain-storming and it ought not to worry us too much if we tend to go back to some of the same issues.

However, when one speaks of pre-primary and primary education, one needs to bear in mind that proper nutrition is esencial when one is targeting very small children. That is why, as I mentioned in an earlier comment, Dr. Facundo Manes has organised a team integrated by educators, doctors in medicine, psychoanalysts, the architects and engineers in the team dealing on shelter. I now  feel that some of the UN bodies might coordinate such teams of normally voluntary professionals.

But here it is the team work that counts, and the integration of school dining-rooms that start with proper breakfast. The mind of a child cannot develop properly is under-fed. So says Manes. And we are all aware of this fact. So when Cecilia asks why are some people poorer than others? one should know how were they fed in their early years. In Argentina, first in the city of Buenos Aires, now on a wider geographical area, the free state education is including very young children. And the "comedores escolares" (school dining-rooms) are now one of the axes of pre-primary and primary education.

I know that for some of you Argentina may look as if it were today situated at a higher level as far as this goal is concerned. Still, we have 30 percent of poor people in our "bread-basket countryside", especially in the non-rural areas around our capital city. Here politics and corruption have had a nefarious effect on the progress made as from the mid-50's. So our goal is still one which will require a great deal of coordinated effort. I refer to our cou,ntry Argentina, because this dialogue requires we have recourse to the cases we are familiar with. Not being actually an educator I may of course be putting these cases not in the proper manner, so, again, please bear with me.

Mauro

Romulo Paes de Sousa • Manager at UNDP from Brazil

The Brazilian crisis is in the international spotlight due to the recent events. However, the same ingredients are present in many countries. For example, in the Latin American region, much of the economic adjustment discourse has explicitly recommended a sharp reduction in social investment. It is the bitter price to pay in the present for achieving a prosperous future. However, little is said in terms of the price and the burden for the most vulnerable. For countries facing that scenario the challenge is how to introduce a comprehensive, integrated and inclusive agenda like the SDGs, while many governments are moving towards reducing their levels of social protection.

The principles and the implicit public policy platform of the Agenda 2030 can operate as a normative reference for the debate on the economic crisis in the countries that are still fighting against recession or stagnation. It can be a moral reference for preventing regressive transitions in terms of social rights, well-being and equity.

Brazil’s Bolsa Familia has a strong international reputation as an effective conditional cash transfer programme. It has a significant influence in many a developing country. Once considered a fundamental feature of modern Brazil, today, during the worst political and economic crisis in decades, the future of the social protection system is becoming less certain. Powerful groups are calling for a reduction in social spending, questioning the generosity of the Brazilian social protection system, which increased consistently in the two previous governments led by the Workers Party.

The programme has had many well-known successes. It has nearly eradicated extreme poverty and reduced inequality –responsible for a reduction in the Gini coefficient from 0.571 (2014) to 0.517 (2015) and a 33% decline in extreme poverty in Brazil from 2004 to 2014 [1]. It also has important impacts on education and health, increasing attendance in school particularly for marginalized girls, reducing infant mortality. It is a powerful force for women’s empowerment, over 93% of card holders are women and has specific benefits for pregnant and lactating women.

The consistent decline in poverty and inequality is the result of a combination of economic growth and inclusive policies. The rise of employment (with a significant recruitment of low skill workers), the rise of the minimum wage (above the inflation) and the introduction of robust social assistance benefits produced the economic environment for the emergence of many. Other inclusive policies, such as incentives for poor and disadvantaged ethnic groups to access public and private undergraduate courses helped to elevate the possibilities to escape poverty.

Among the many achievements of Brazil’s social protection work, although perhaps less known, has also been its attention to data. Close monitoring of the programme has been a central tenant of programme delivery. The Cadastro Unico was created in 2001 to track socioeconomic data of low income families (with total monthly income up to 3 times minimum wage). It is a single registry database used to identify potential beneficiaries of Bolsa Familia and several other complementary programmes and it has been an essential feature for optimizing programme management. As the social programmes expanded across the country, extensive efforts were made to ensure all potential beneficiaries were reached –with over 1200 crews visiting homes across the country and even trekking deep into the Amazon by canoe.

Today, the Cadastro Unico is tracking the characteristics of over 26 million low income households, of which 14 million are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Familia. This database has been essential for optimizing programme management and monitoring implementation to ensure no one is left behind by the safety-net system. It has also enabled extensive monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the Bolsa Familia and other programmes. With such rigourous studies that included millions of cases, it is more difficult to deny the results. However, it cannot prevent significant changes in the social protection model of Brazil. It can come as a collateral effect of the macroeconomic policies (for example: massive cuts on social expenditure) or as the direct intervention on the social protection systems – for example: reducing coverage and the value of the cash transfer programmes.  

The Cadastro Unico will help to monitor social protection programmes as an essential tool in Brazil’s efforts to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. However it also offers an outstanding opportunity for Brazil to contribute to the SDG agenda. This database of 100 million people, with information regarding the implementation of 38 national programmes  provides the foundation for detailed evaluations of socio-economic impacts of policies and shocks at the household level over 16 years. It is a social scientist’s data-source dream. And, it has become more openly available, becoming one of the powerful tools of the data revolution that will usher in a more sustainable future.

Much of the data debate has so far focused on monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals, but big data can also be mobilized to simulate the direct impacts of alternative policy options to reduce poverty and inequality. For example, using microsimulation methods at the RIO+ Centre we have been exploring the effect of economic adjustments on the wellbeing of the poor population. Considering the persistence of the high levels of unemployment combined with the contraction of the social expenditure (reducing coverage and quality of the public provision of health and social assistance goods and services), RIO+ is testing the effect of the pervasive context on health indicators (under five years old mortality and morbidity, encompassing diseases related to poverty such as, malnutrition and diaorrhea). It also considered threats that more frequently affect vulnerable adult populations such as tuberculosis and violence. The primary question behind this work is if the favorable economic context combined with inclusive polices collapses what can be expected for the health of the population (and indicators for other SDGs) in the next 15 years?

[1]PAES-SOUSA, R and CAMPOS, BP (2017). Pobreza, desigualdad y políticas públicas: lecciones de Brasil. Paper presented at the FORO INTERNACIONAL ¿POR QUÉ PERSISTEN LA POBREZA Y LA DESIGUALDAD EN MÉXICO? – 28 and 29 March, 2017 (Puebla, Mexico)

Romulo Paes de Sousa, Director, UNDP World Centre for Sustainable Development (Rio+ Centre)

Laura Hildebrandt, Policy Specialist

 

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Viviane Martins

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind is a great one. However, how can we make it effective and bring theories into realities? Policies and law making play an important part on this goal. There is actually a need to simplify and make things easier and straightforward fair. From targeting corruption acts and making them accountable - brought to justice- to making laws for basic paperwork submission simpler for prospective students and job seekers. We need more laws of inclusion. For example, every school (public and private) and workplace must have a 30-50 % of participants being from minority groups such as woman, individuals of color, foreigners, etc. Another contributing policy making: a minimum decent six figure salary to every teacher at every public (and private) school. These policies will certainly ensure more diverse and inclusive societies. When considering the methods for measuring poverty such as Human Poverty Index (HPI) and Human Development Index (HDI), it is fair to state that most severe poverty exists within developing countries but there is evidence of poverty in every region, even developed ones. Innovative employing data can be great for overall analysis and monitoring but it needs to be constantly double-checked for errors and unreliable error statistics.

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Carmen Ghanim

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to express my ideas in this subject.

As the conversation is about Global Poverty, I want to make an observation before presenting my opinion:

-It is vitally important that our Governments take serious, efficient measures in this matter as the Governments  are the bodies with the Real Power; the talk and the written agreements are simply not enough .

I identified several factors that create and maintain the Poverty:

1. Overpopulation

-we can take measures to STOP the growth of the population, such as to legally limit the number of children per household to 2.

2..Wars

-everybody knows the devastating results of the conflicts world-wide and that , simply, we have to STOP them.

3 Technological development, focused in only one direction.

-koodos to the Human Species for its amazing Technological progress, BUT:

      -while we can send flying for thousands of miles few tones of metal, we cannot stop effectively a Forest Fire, or predict an Earthquake, or deal with the floods or droughts.

4. Monetary investments , focused in one direction.

5. The Destruction of the Natural Environment, which is our HABITAT.

This is the most important issue, if we are serious about ``not leaving nobody behind`` and alleviated the Poverty world-wide.

What we can do:

- start building back what was destroyed: the most important step is re-planting the Forests World-wide.

-PLANT ; plant the Earth, by developing Technology capable to grow crop and food on the most sterile parcels of land, in the most hostile environments. The Governments should allocate such lands to each citizen, and the Developed World should provide the Technological assistance, so everybody will have a small piece of land, a personal GARDEN, and be able to provide his own food.

-Invest in LARGE, much needed World Projects, such as BUILD A WORLD SYSTEM OF IRRIGATION, OR WATER- PIPELINES, able to transport the WATER in areas afflicted by Drought, or to chanell the FLOOD-WATER to areas afflicted by Drought.

This kind of Project would employ hundreds of thousands of people, world-wide.

-Due to our most recent developments in Technology, specifically the Artificial Intelligence, many people  will not have jobs, as the robots will replace the man-power. Well, these are good news:MANY CAPABLE PEOPLE WILL BE AVAILABLE TO WORK IN ENVIRONMENT.

For the last century, we developed Technology and neglected the Environment; simply, we can MOVE TO WORK IN ENVIRONMENT, to use our technical development and our intelligence in this field.

This is the way I see we can move up from World Poverty, but , as I suggested above, the Governments hold the power to take measures and make the change. If the Governments decide to not get involved in a real way, not only by talk, I am sure that any efforts in this matter will have very little results.

I want to close by giving an example, about the Forests, and what happens when the Governments are just doing the talk; this example is from the two countries that I am citizen and live in :Canada and Romania.

In Canada, the current environmental Government, left about 2500 square Km. of Forest to perish in fire, because the Prime Minister refused the help offered by other Governments to fight the Forest fire. So, also there are locally many Canadian Organizations concerned with the Protection of Forest, THIS ONE GOVERNMENT DECISION WAS MAJOR, RESULTING IN THE LOST OF A MAJOR PORTION OF FOREST- irreplaceable.

In Romania, the destruction of Forests goes at speed, as most of the Romanian Forest id being sold for the money. Nothing would create such a level of Poverty in Romania, as will create this particular fact.

With respect for your time, and with my understanding that the Poverty is a state in which a Human cannot provide for himself the basic, such as: food, water, cloths and a place to stay, or a ``nest` `.It takes place in super-developed cities and countries, and in the most remote communities.

Thank you.

Carmen Ghanim

 

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S ann • from United States

How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 

FYI:  See report published by the United Nations Evaluation Group entitled, “Evaluating the Sustainable Development Goals of the ‘No One Left Behind’ Through the Lens of Equity-Focused and Gender-Responsive Evaluations.”   

Also, see two reports by the Brookings Institution, USA.  One, entitled “No Country Left Behind: The Case for Focusing Greater Attention on the World’s Poorest Countries,” and the other report, “Changing the Geography of US Poverty.”

The first report identifies the poorest countries in the world; however, the objective of the SDG1 goal is to ensure that no one is left behind, which is why I also attached Brookings’ current report reflecting poverty in the U.S.  Though the US is one of the world’s superpowers and one of the wealthiest nations in the world, according to Brookings Institute, “[I]n 2015, … 43.1 million people (or 13.5 percent of the population) were poor.  Even after years of a sustained economic expansion, that number remains 5.8 million higher than before the recession began in 2007, and 11.5 million more than in 2000.”

(My apologies, I was unable to attach the reports, but they can readily be found on the Internet.)

 

abubaker rashed • member at Society Development Association in Nubia from Egypt

Problems are growing in developing countries and no one expects the risks they face in the future
Here I put the problems we face in our reality
And wait for help in finding solutions to reduce future risks
In southern Egypt
Aswan Governorate - Kom Umbu Area
Population in this area
They cut the green area (agricultural land) by building houses
This will lead to a shortage of agricultural crops in this region
As a result, poverty will increase as a result of population growth and low agricultural production (food) Many rural men and women are no longer able to cover their own land, forcing them to migrate to cities in search of opportunities.

Agriculture is the largest job-saving sector in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of the world's population today. It is the largest source of income and employment for poor rural families.

  • 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52 per cent of the land used for agriculture is moderately or severely affected by soil degradation 
  • As of 2008, land degradation affected 1.5 billion people globally
  • Arable land loss is estimated at 30 to 35 times the historical rate
  • Due to drought and desertification each year 12 million hectares are lost (23 hectares per minute), where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown 
  • 74 per cent of the poor are directly affected by land degradation globally

Egyptian governments do not show enough interest in the south
And does not build new cities in the desert despite the increase in population
Especially in southern Egypt
To reduce the decline of agricultural land area
And to reduce population growth in the region itself
There must be a vision for the future
I write what happens on the ground in which we live
Reality is already going on and does not stop
We have to work to preserve land that contains every person in the world
The international community must stop these practices

https://www.google.com.eg/maps/@24.4796423,32.9436878,11500m/data=!3m1!…

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Brenda Bush

Hello All!

Poverty is a very complicated topic.  What is not mentioned in the above opinions, is whether or not an individual wants a different life.  Poverty is not just geography or environmental or economic - it is cultural.  When you are talking about eradicating something you are eliminating a choice.  Some people choose to life a simple life, even if that involves suffering or doing without.  Has anyone asked these chosen people if they want change?  You can't just walk in and change thousands of years of culture.  What can be done, however, is education and tools that would make their lives easier a bit at a time.  Let there be some assimilation and acceptance of a different way of doing things.  Some people will be suspicious and sabotage the improvement effort; others will be fearful; others will be angry that you disrupted their culture and routine; yet some will accept or be open minded.  It's got to be a bit at a time.  After all you wouldn't want someone coming into your home and telling you how to run it, would you?  This is their home.

If you want to make a difference, education is the key.  Time is a commodity these people have, irregardless of timelines set by the UN. 

Here in the US, there is a program that builds houses for specific families at no cost.  I remember a case where the house was built for a couple and two children.  They had been living in a car for several years.  After the house was built and furnished, the family moved in.  The case worker checked on them a week later and found them living in their car in the driveway, next to their new house.  The sheer size of that small house was overwhelming to them and they felt safer in the car.  In another case, a family moved in and a week later, when the case worker checked on them, they had made a fire pit in the middle of the floor and were burning everything wood to stay warm.  They didn't trust the electric heat.

So, my point is no matter what good intentions you have, learned behavior and culture will take over.  We must educate first. 

Marzia Traverso • from Italy

Dear Brenda,

Thanks for your suggestion but I think that when we are talking about eradicating Poverty, we are talking on that poverty that is not a choice! Children and Families in all part of the world that struggling to have something to eat and to find a job or a chance for their future.

Marzia

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Even though the concept has an alternative that thought behind it is valid and appreciable. Yes, we cannot and should not design facilities or living of others, that's a violation of the freedom entitled to them through the constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Culture is growth, culture is a concept that cultivates noble and wise lifestyle. Culture is in grooming an individual with principles of human and social values that lets him/her accept everyone for the skill and expertise they have to share with the world in its progress and to treat them with a spirit of brotherhood. Culture is not the set of rituals, customs or lifestyle that was assigned to a group in its earlier time. This is why the term for this concept was named as culture whose meaning by its etymology is "to tend or cultivate". 

 

People can live a simple life but that cannot lessen or simplify the contribution they have to contribute the world in its progress. Suffering is neither destined to people nor evinces principled or truthful living. Suffering, hard work and toiling are all the factors that are dead against democracy and Human Rights. Also, the degree that defines simplicity differs from people to people and generation to generation. When a life puts its living being into suffering or hardship it is not simple life but a grieved life that is both undemocratic and inhumane.

Definitely, education is the only key not just to eradicate poverty but all the social problems existing in the world at present. But it needs education to reform inline with its purpose. Education that merely encrypts formulas, derivation, calculations, theories and definitions of science and mathematics wouldn’t bring in the change we intend, here education is just seen as a medium that builds an individual with his capacity to earn money getting himself fixed with the job markets enabled to all by the government or the facilitators. Education to serve as a key to eradicate the problems existing in the world, it needs to be individual specific. It should nurture every single individual of the world with the skills and interest the are innate to them in making them responsible citizens of the world in accessing the resources and prospects of the world through their individual personality.

Government’s basic and foremost duty is to include this individual specific design of living and functioning for facilitation through the social, economic and environmental resources of the nation by duly the regulating the design to correspond with the principles in the constitution and UDHR and orienting the design towards the duties of citizens principled in the same.

On the other hand, government is not an administering unit but a governing unit. Government or governing is not about ensuring that the living and activities of all its populace are within the officiated means and framework. Administering is merely superintending whether the functioning are well within the border drawn by the system, whereas governing is to guide the functioning of the world by orienting the human capital with the resources of the state through the constitutional principles that assure everyone is included for progress and prosperity. The duty of the government is to help its citizen and be a guide to them in their endeavours. Sovereignty and eminence to the government are vested not to daunt, control or dominate its citizens and region but to include everyone in its facilitation for the individual specific needs of people’s progress and prosperity by being citizen’s guide giving them their self-worth, confidence and dignity in life. Its unfortunate and poignant for people to fear or feel suspicious on the government that’s basic duty is to help them.

Regarding the case study discussed here, this is why we need to enable opportunities to people than the facilities itself. When people’s mindset is not in a way to adapt with the changes we are facilitating them, its goes purposeless, all the efforts, resources and time invested in it goes meaningless and futile. Elevating life standards must be through the living and individual nurturance of the people, their progress in life standards and prosperity must be for the progress they make in their life through their living.

Directly enabling people with amenities for better life standards is like adding up to the elevation without building or strengthening the foundation which would temporarily hide the flaws leaving it to collapse within a short span of time.

Instead of readily enabling the facility, when these families would have been enabled with opportunities to earn their living and life standards, they would have made it to their choice and comfort and by the time they had earned this facility for them, they would have nurtured due mindset and living pattern to fit this life standard.

For people who expect a balance in their life before they could step out to contribute their skill and expertise, the government can include them with the opportunities of work they claim by advancing (loan) them the resources they need to set their individual or personal life at balance. By this, we ensure that everyone in the population are housed productive and the progress enabled to them are advantageous and utilitarian. This approach of advancing people is a better means to support people. When it is a freebie we exact the world and expect it to balance the resources invested to enable freebies, but when it is an advance, people who are enabled with opportunities balances it through their contribution to the world's progress.

Therefore, we need to reform education to serve its purpose enabling every individual with free and full development of their individual personality that lets them contribute their best to the world through the progressive use of resources in enabling progress and prosperity to their self and the world. Meanwhile, the government needs to reform its functioning and approach in line with its purpose that facilitates it's people with the principles it had adopted through the constitution that mandates inclusion of all its citizen with opportunities for their individuality that doesn’t restrict or limit their scopes within a shrunken paradigm.

When our approach is not superficial, the change it would bring will be real and purposeful.

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S ann • from United States

Hi Brenda,

While I agree cultures must be respected and education is imperative in eradicating poverty, I hardly think most people would prefer to remain in impoverish conditions if they had an opportunity for a better life for their families. Particularly, for basic needs such as housing.  Many people from other countries have overcome surmountable challenges just to get to America for a better life. 

With respect to the program that build houses for specific families.  It sounds like you are referring to Habitat for Humanity.  My son and I once volunteered for Habitat building homes for families, and I can assure you there are many people who are very grateful for their new homes.  In fact, it would be great if more Habitats for Humanity existed worldwide.

For the families you mentioned who had difficulty adjusting to their new homes,  it sounds like something else was going on that perhaps the Social Worker should have realized.   I can't imagine anyone rejecting a new home under normal circumstances.  I know I wouldn't.

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New User

Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind

By Mr. Kisembo Asuman

President

 African agency for Integrated Development

 (AAID)  www.africanaid.org

Qn.1.

HOW WILL POLICIES NEED TO BE ADJUSTED IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS TO ENSURE THAT THEY MORE EFFECTIVELY CONTRIBUTE TO LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SDG1 AND RELATED SDGS?

Policies need to be adjusted through democracy and good governance, most countries in some continents are having improper democracy and governance causing policies not to be implemented this contributes to living others behind in the achievement of SDGI and related SDGs. For example over staying in leadership have strong policies but are not followed so this has caused corruption in many countries especially in Africa and corruption is the major cause of poverty.

Solution

All stake holders should participate in the follow-up to the implementation of policies put in place; the stakeholders include civil society, private sectors, UN agencies, governments and individuals or concerned citizens in different countries and members of parliament in countries

 

La PAIX est le premier élément fédérateur du développement, et par conséquent le modérateur de la lutte contre la pauvreté sous toutes ses formes
djepang yvonne • Présidente Fondatrice at Association pour la promotion de la lutte contre les violences faites aux femmes et la participation au développement de la femme Africaine"LUCOVIFA" from Cameroon

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1-      Comment les politiques devront-elles être ajustées dans des contextes différents afin de s'assurer qu'elles contribuent plus efficacement à ne laisser personne en arrière dans la réalisation de SDG1 et SDG connexes?

La pauvreté est un phénomène qui s’observe en premier lieu dans les familles, la société ne reçoit que les suites ou les conséquences de la pauvreté en famille.

La pierre angulaire des familles n’est autre que la Femme ; c’est  dire que tant que la Femme n’est pas améliorée financièrement, c’est le cadre familial qui en pâti. D’où la nécessité de renforcer les atouts  aux femmes en vue de faciliter leur progrès économique dans une perspective visant à un cadre décent au profit des familles.

Ces femmes pour la plupart exercent dans le cadre informel, il est question ici de veiller à ce que les activités informelles attirent l’attention des gouvernants afin que ce secteur soit pris en compte et mieux organisé entre les différents Ministères qui les composent.

Où alors mettre sur pied un Ministère du secteur informel qui est sensé mieux étudier chaque secteur d’activité, voir comment l’orienter et le soutenir. (Remarque : les multiples taxes imposées aux contribuables de ce secteur ont facilités leur ruine et surtout la cessation d’activité de beaucoup de femmes, ce qui est bien contraire à la lutte contre la pauvreté et à l’appui à l’autonomisation économique des femmes et des filles.
 

2-      Quelle est l'efficacité des méthodes actuelles pour mesurer la pauvreté, en ne laissant personne derrière? Quelles leçons ont été tirées de la compréhension de la répartition sociale et géographique de la pauvreté pour identifier les pauvres et les vulnérables dans les pays?

Le niveau de pauvreté actuel peut se mesurer à travers l’explosion démographique dans les grandes villes, la tendance du mouvement migratoire, le taux de mortalité néonatale, le nombre de prostitués, le niveau de délinquance, la multiplication des sectes pernicieuses (engendrant la multiplication des malades mentaux quand ce n’est la mort), en bref l’accroissement du secteur d’activité informelle.
La bonne orientation des élèves dès la base et l'augmentation des grandes écoles professionnelles dans toutes les régions du pays, une bonne politique d’appui aux étudiants ayant fini leur formation, sont là ce qui manque pour contribuer à l’autonomisation des jeunes et surtout des plus vulnérables
 

3-      Quels sont les exemples innovateurs d'utilisation des données et la révolution des données pour identifier et évaluer les besoins politiques des personnes laissées pour compte?

Aux fins d’évaluer plus facilement la tendance du niveau de pauvreté :
* Pour les femmes et filles : échantillonnage au niveau des marchés des grandes villes, dénombrer la quantité de tickets distribuée par jour au petites  commerçantes jonchant les abords des marchés, travail avec les communes d’Arrondissement
* pour les hommes de tout âge : échantillonnage avec les motos taxis, communément appelées « Ben skins », comptabiliser le nombre  au niveau des carrefours des villes ou à travers les mairies se référant à aux souches de certaines taxes bénéficiées sur ces contribuables.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Good evening, friends!

I'd very much like to comment on something that has been less discussed hitherto. We have dealt with EDUCATION, which of course is vital, and with

MEASUREMENT and DATA, without which we'd be navigating without a compass. However, the other essential element of SD has not been that much present. Three days ago Carmen Ghanim has dealt with the ENVIRONMENT. And yes, Carmen, how right you are!

Of course, you may tell me that without EDUCATION there can be no concern as far as the ENVIRONMENT is concerned; right you are too. Sustainable Development must be tackled from its three axes. Carmen says: "What can we do [about it]??? -Start building back what has been destroyed: THE MOST IMPORTANT STEP is that of re-planting Forests WORLD-WIDE!!!" In our fertile Argentine country-side the last decade saw the destruction of native and planted forest areas in order to grow soy bean. Soy bean has been in great demand in order to be exported to China (it has nothing to do with feeding the local population nor our cattle). This destruction of forest areas is responsible for DESERTIFICATION. Desert areas, where forest stood, means what all deserts mean, plus huge clouds of dust generated where forests stood. Today the indiscriminate sowing of soy bean is being balanced by means of wheat crops and areas where cattle grow to produce the unique meat brand Argentina has been famous for. I'm far from being an expert in this field, so I ask my colleagues, especially my Argentine colleagues who may read this, to bear with me. But it is clear that without stopping forest destruction and switching to re-planting, there is NO FUTURE. For you all know that forests absorb part of the huge amount of tons of greenhouse gas emissions all our countries are generating every day. Of course, the oceans still absorb greenhouse gas emissions; but we all know how deeply the oceans have been affected! And to tackle these combined tasks efficiently, apart from an unrelenting struggle against corruption, EDUCATION must also point towards re-educating the government officials responsible, and those officials who are struggling towards leaving no one behind.

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S ann • from United States

Hi Mauricio,

Education is imperative.  I would add, if the environment is not considered a priority and we become better stewards, over time, nothing else will matter.

 

 

Marzia Traverso • from Italy

Dear All,

first of all thanks to involve me in this important discussion. To eradicate poverty we need a comprehensive strategy in which governments, NGOs and companies are involved. We need to involve the companies to take care of the workers and the local communities where they have the plants. We need to measure the social impacts that a company and its products produce to the local communities and including in these social indicators the ones measuring positive and negative contributions on eradicating the poverty. In developed countries should be awarded those companies and products that produce a positive social contribution along its life cycle, and all indirect effects on increasing and reducing poverty should be considered, e.g. desertification, minimum wage and so on. We should make a campaign to rise the awareness of consumers to take care of this aspect when they buy a product.

 

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Rodrigo Gouveia

I would like to address the first question of how policies need to be adjusted in different contexts, particularly regarding the role of co-operatives in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. My remarks are on behalf of the International Co-operative Alliance, a NGO in consultative status with the UN ECOSOC.

Co-operatives are owned and democratically controlled by their members, that amount to more than 1 billion worldwide. They secure the livelihoods of more than 250 million people by providing decent jobs and/or being their main source of income. They are a powerful force in the economy of many countries with combined annual revenues of more than USD 2.5 trillion.

Co-operatives are values-based and people-centered enterprises that can be major contributors to eradicating poverty, providing food security and decent employment, ensuring gender equality and women empowerment, protecting the environment and to implementing many other SDGs.

The role of co-operatives is recognized recurrently by the UN and its agencies, including by the Committee on the Promotion and Advancement of Co-operatives (COPAC), a partnership between the International Co-operative Alliance, UN DESA, FAO, ILO and the World Farmers Organization.

Examples of the work co-operatives are doing to advance the SDGs can be found in the online platform ‘Coops for 2030’ (www.coopsfor2030.coop).

But despite this recognition and the evidence that exists about the added value that co-operatives bring, there is still much that needs to be done to explore the full potential of co-operatives, including by UN bodies and agencies. This is where we believe that policy needs to change.

There should be a better recognition, active promotion and development of national co-operative movements so that they can provide a relevant balance to the investor-owned models of other private enterprises. National governments should prioritize the development of co-operatives to ensure that local communities have a tool to address their own needs and expectations. And, more importantly, to ensure that the wealth generated by economic activity remains in the communities where it is generated.

In addition, national governments, UN bodies and agencies, and other development actors, should better integrate co-operatives in policy-making processes, delivery mechanisms and partnerships for sustainable development.

We believe that the UN has an important role to play in making this happen and we are willing to discussion possible solutions and future initiatives.

Rodrigo Gouveia

Director of Policy

International Co-operative Alliance

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

I am sure that well educated and in to developmental activities during last several years are confused,because their two lines of  argument are

[1]Education-vocational etc.We are witnessing this model in India.We are 
getting almost every year 2 to 4 million educated youth from Universities to high 
schools.The question is their employablity.[a]We are Trying-.Agriculture.2.Horticulture.3.Building works.4.Digital technology.
5.Information Technology 6.Computer engineering.7.Public health.
8.Smart cities.9.Highways.10.Ports.11 Health services and so on.
But what we find is there are businessmen with either not aware of laws or not having Ethics as  to who is funding them-The people either directly or indirectly.
The second 2...Is Free ration in the name of -"Policy reformation and right to development,Human rights".
I find this title in UN in India only.This shall be war torn countries where such experts can see  what exactly are human rights,and how to develop their rights and policies.Any functioning government has many functionalities which it needs to fulfill as per  the  sequential laws.And unfortunate such narrow
 titles do not fit for sustainable development.We can not make every thing free for ever and spoil generations.We need to give small training  and enhance their capacities to earn and live happily.In the process,we may accommodate 
certain up gradation -reservations-for enhancing their level of education-work-experience-earnings and so the status in society.

I again repeat that we have 1 million strength in local circles where we discuss daily all issues from food certification,on line sales,vehicle certification,Rape,police action,law property etc,to quote a few,and submit reports to government to act.These also comes in news papers.Thus foundations for young generation as enterprenures and employment providers and for participatory democracy are solidly laid.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Sir, there is a continuous misunderstanding of the concepts and suggestions made. 

Where did I suggest "free ration"? Yes, I understand that there are more than a million in local circles to discuss daily issues and submit reports to government to act, but my point is this democracy, is this independence, is this freedom or human rights for a group of expertise to decide what and how the nation to live with? Is it not that the same pattern of the royal court or monarchic form where retinue and courtiers of empire gather to discuss and submit advices for the government to act? What is the meaning of a world claiming democratic, free and liberal when it is the old routine followed as practice? How could we say this routine of the monarchy to solidly lay democracy?

I never said everything to people should be free, indeed if my views are read without a retort this can be clearly seen and understood. All that I said was opportunities to progress must be free for people without any limitation or restriction. 

 

And all that I ask is when democracy and human rights says people are free to full up gradation and everyone are assured with progressive opportunities they need to participate in the development of their self and the world, why do we force ourselves in-between to frame the world with a stipulated specification and later dilute and reserve it for few as a means for up-gradation, enhancement or development? When fundamentals sets the paradigm wide reserving diverse opportunities for all why do we shrink it to a smaller limit and reserve opportunities for few that put the world to exclusion twice?

Would enabling free opportunities to progress spoil the generation or would enabling free facilities spoil the generation?

Discussion must include people’s perception, when a viewpoint is not acceptable, we are free to discuss upon the perception but not thrash the individual’s contribution, that itself is a violation of rights. With authority, we take the power to hurt the self-worth, dignity and esteem of a being which by the fundamentals is entitled to them by birth. If anything is unacceptable, people are free to ask for a reason and conviction but cannot be judgmental and decide things to be useless, by doing so we are tightening the rope that pulling back the speed of development and progress of the world.

This why research finding and concepts that could serve to resolves problems holistically are not proposed to the government or brought to its notice. Because we don’t find the possibility of it serving the purpose but simply thrash people that would deprive their enthusiasm and life in total. This again is not new to the world and is existing from galileo's time. Wasn’t heliocentrism true or real? Wasn’t he called foolish and absurd, wasn’t he abstained from furthering this principle, wasn’t he pushed to deprived life for saying something that was in the thoughts of the majority? What did the world accomplish doing this? It just held the progress of this concept, its related findings and life of Galileo to stagnation. Today we have a world where many such expertise are kept invisible for the fear of being attacked or deprived. Where is democracy in here? I am not to point anyone in particular here, but to highlight the factor that is pulling back the progress and original richness of the world and that which is refraining from extending the people with a world true to its form.

This absolutely examples why the world isn’t democratic and rich in human rights. Mistakes are part and parcel of life, suppressing the freedom and progress of an individual by imposing guilt will not liberate the system to a higher paradigm, nobility of the government is in its ability to regulate the flaws and to balance the world progressively and its honour is in setting an environment that will scope to no negativity or deprivation. Democracy and independence is not autocracy by natives, its about freedom and liberty enabled to people within the scopes of its fundamentals in designing their life and living. People should not fear to express their thoughts and suggestion, they should not back away in the fear of being oppressed, they might have a point that will be more holistic in resolving an issue we face. This is freedom of expression.

By impersonating the attributes of freedom and democracy to something thats not what it truly means, simply for the world to stick within what we have dwindled is distortion, we are misleading the world with illusionary factors .

Ethics must be in the activity we do. Everything in the world doesn't start and end with money, finance or economy. It is a part which is enabled through the working of the world. Everyone in the world needs to be a humanitarian, their ethics should not to be the funding organisation but to the world and to humanity that will ensure the world to be progressive.

I couldn’t perceive as in what is tried to be conveyed through this statement

“I am sure that well educated and in to developmental activities during last several years are confused,because their two lines of  argument are

[1]Education-vocational etc.We are witnessing this model in India.We are 
getting almost every year 2 to 4 million educated youth from Universities to high 
schools.The question is their employablity.[a]We are Trying-.Agriculture.2.Horticulture.3.Building works.4.Digital technology.
5.Information Technology 6.Computer engineering.7.Public health.
8.Smart cities.9.Highways.10.Ports.11 Health services and so on.
But what we find is there are businessmen with either not aware of laws or not having Ethics as  to who is funding them-The people either directly or indirectly.”

If this excerpt can be explained, it will be helpful for me to answer. 

For this discussion to come out with purposeful suggestion, and for this discussion to be meaningful it is important that we get ourselves reasoned and convinced with the facts, thoughts and ideas contradicting our perception. So, if there is still a point or perception that needs to justified, I may be highlighted with the same. My intention is not to target, counter or rebut a contradiction but to convince and get convinced with a point that wouldn’t take away a valid alternative that this discussion would have for the purpose. 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

India is a well developed country.'I had come across communities in many countries' and Indians lack of knowledge they attribute things and keep with 'very bad comments' on this country,'so that the title remains as a developing country'.

Statistics show who is in to wars,and which countries maintain low budget for literacy.They also show where Judicial systems are partial.Lack of acess or knowledge is no way a right to comment only about,"Human Rights".

'When a democracy is functioning' ' the question of human rights does not arise'.'If it is political issue,UN can keep such a wing in India'.

I strongly oppose these discussions based on Human Rights.The discussion shall be on human development Index.

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Ms.Madam,Please note the discussion is not between you and me.

I am in to many societies world wide.Do not reply to my comments.Thanks in advance.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

What is human rights? Human rights is about the freedom people have in this world that liberates them to a living for their individuality and a life standard to their ability making them through the resources of the state where they could fulfil all their responsibility. Human rights is about the scopes people have and the mandates government has in enabling high HDI. All my previous posts clearly explains this connectivity between human rights, development and HDI.

Human rights is basic. Kindly refer to Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it would clearly enable us with a true cognisance of what is human rights. National human rights commission is already functioning in India. Democracy and human rights are synonymous and both of them correspond with each other by their principles of prioritising people with freedom. Human Rights is not a means of conflict resolution or political resolution, it is a means that set the world free of any conflicting or unresting scenarios. Human Rights should be understood, approached and practised as it is principled through Universal Declaration of Human Rights because it was UDHR that introduced the world with human rights.

Eduction to avoid conflicts needs to focus on nurturing an individual into a holistic being than being a system that encrypts datas, formulas, theories, definitions and concepts of maths and science. India is still being in a developing status because our focus is too much scientific whereas the strength of the nation is largely in its natural wealth. India’s geographies predominantly supports in activities thats nature oriented, formulating development policies that focused merely on the scientific and technological spectrum will not help India in crossing the border thats in-between developing and developed status.

Your thoughts and opinion are welcomed but it can be imposed blindly, when you oppose something it needs to be justified as in why it is opposed? When people with  different thoughts discuss on a personal belief or liking, it needn’t be focused to end on a unified thought or opinion but when it is about a public policy or a matter of general concern, it needs to focused towards bringing a unanimous conclusion, because, in a social spectrum, our individual specific work must be towards a unified goal and principle that will direct all our functioning towards the progress of the world in a progressive way. Otherwise half the populace will work towards and on a progressive principle, half would work towards and on a sustaining principles and the rest would work towards and on a restrictive principles one slashing on the progress of other making the entire world make no progress by nullfying the outcomes of one with the shortfall of other. 

Work of people can be diverse and different but the goal towards which they are work and the principle on which they work must be same for the world to gain progress by collecting the diverse progress enabled by the populace in each of its sectors.

Discussion is to analyse and explore about a topic in detail, it needs to be concluded in a place that benefits the world at large. I hope this discussion is very well open to everyone who wishes to participate with the topic being "leaving no one behind".

It is my responsibility to justify when a difference of opinion or contradiction is pointed on my work, that’s not to substantiate myself or not to disprove or debunk anyone. Here it is not about me or any individual in specific, it is about the work, responsibility and purpose. I replied to this post as I felt it was hinted towards me. My humble request is not to leave a discussion or communication unconvinced or when it is halfway through, it wouldn’t scope to serve the purpose and it will also pull back the progress that could have been accomplished if the discussion ended in a point of mutual conviction. 

Sherna Alexander Benjamin • Founder/Executive Director at O.A.B.I.: Organization for Abused and Battered Individuals from Trinidad and Tobago

Dear all,

It is indeed a privilege to be part of this virtual space and to be involved in this most crucial discussion, I am participating as an advocate for the prevention, reduction and elimination of discrimination and violence against women. And as the Founder of O.A.B.I.: Organization for Abused and Battered Individuals. 

While policies need to be implemented to take care of everyone within any given country they must also be adjusted to protect the vulnerable and marginalised, too often policies are developed in favour of the middle and upper class within society while the poor, people residing in economic disadvantaged rural and urban communities are left behind and when they do try to seek support to change their lived realities they experience red tapes and bureaucracy that they (the people) become frustrated and give up and remain powerless and weak.

Policies must not show equality on paper they (the policies) must become the lived realities of those who live in and experience poverty each day of their lives. There is a high level of poverty in the Caribbean region, yet many times the Caribbean is overlooked, under researched, underfunded and many international organisations fail to take an in-depth look at the serious social and economic challenges of many families. A Caribbean country having a high GDP does not mean that there is economic divesification nor does it mean that there is state driven agenda for economic equality for the nations citizens. International organisations who look at a high National GDP for a country and reduces the aid or grants to such countries are perpetuating the continuation of poverty within such naiton states.

  • How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?

Policies need to look at the following:

  • Establishing effective community development and giving the individual Boroughs or the local governments greater autonomy, increased budgets, increased staffing and the technical support needed to strategically develop communites as each Borough will have knowledge as to the extent of poverty and deprivation which they are faced with, there should also be a monitoring and evaluation department within each Borough and this department can be staffed with external and local persons including civil society members. Community development need to be seriously focused on beyond developing only the physical areas as there needs to be greater focus upon the people and assisting families to develop strong structures as many families live in powerless, socially, economically and academically deprived communities thus having no opportunites nor the motivation as they are socialised into helplessness due to their social strata. 
  • Local micro financing company or a community based micro-financing agency which offers ease of access and speed of access to low interest and no collateral loans where women can have access to financing for business purposes, to make a downpayment for a home. The financial empowerment of women is a way forward to meeting the  2030 sustainable development goals, women's access to finances allows them to care for themselves and their families, it allows them to seek medical care to ehance their status of living and reduces the mental pressures of depression and anxiety.
  • Access to quality health care services which are free, low cost, and allows for speed of access, availability of trained medical staff, medicine, and equipments which are functioning. Health care plays a crucial role in the life span of families and communities when adults are healthy mentally and physically then they are able to effectively provide for family members and help with motivating members to advance.
  • Policies must look at the mental, physical, social, academic and economic areas of the individuals life as having comprehensive polices will allow that no one is left behind. Policies must also consider the socieconomic and cultural backgrounds of those they wish to serve, the diversed cultures and social norms which dominate. And a multidisciplinary approach must be adopted these approaches must include civil society organisation representatives who work on the ground as community members when combined make up the entire society and community members have increased faith in the civil society organisations on the ground as a relationship has been developed over the years oten times civil society organisations act as an individual, family and community first point of contact when a crises arise.
  • Policies need to be specific, include evidence tracking and should have a social protection component, as social protection policies ensures that no one is left behaind. 
  • An education fund should be established for women and girls who have endured violence and abuse and are deserious of returning to school or have received an international scholarship. And Low cost housing loans should be established for persons below a certain annual income.
  • Civil society organisations should be given greater support especially grass roots NGO's. They should be able to apply for social entrepreneurship loans which would allow the NGO to become self sustainable to offer a wider range of services, service more members within the community, maintain their present services without always having to turn to local, regional and international bodies for financial support. As when international organisations offer technical or financial support there is some level of bias and inequality. As the grassroots organisations who really work overtime on the ground are most times never funded.
  • How effective are current methods for measuring poverty, in leaving no one behind? What lessons have been learned with respect to understanding the social and geographical distribution of poverty in order to identify the poor and vulnerable within countries? 

I believe the present methods may have been effective for the time span in which they were used or for the purposes for which they were created, however, with the rapid increase in the global population over the years the poverty continues to increase. This is due to a variety of factors of which social exclusion, economic inequality, and defective community development are contributing factors. Poverty data must not only come from government or state institutional agencies as this information can be skewed at times there must be a central agency which is independent of the state which captures data from the ground, from institututions, among civil society organisations and from the local government agencies inclusive of religious organisations. There must be a multipronged approach to capturing relevent data which can reflect a true representaiton of the issue of poverty but there must also be a monitoring and evident tracker to show progress and the reduction of poverty.  

 

  • What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

Employing Community based research where data can be captured from those who are actually experiencing the effects of poverty.

Employing strategies to accurately give support to the deserving poor as many times the undeserving poor or persons who exploit social services are counted as deserving poor and this can restrict support from reaching the deserving poor as the undeserving poor may be in the majority. Developing a strategic approach or program to equitably meet the needs of the deserving poor.

Look at the stereotypes which may be hindering the accurate documentation of data, if discrimination has led to services not being offered to the deserving poor in the first place, then consultation or data collection may reinforce this discrimination by asking only those people who have received the service. 

Sherna Alexander Benjamin

Executive Director

O.A.B.I.: Organisation for Abused and Battered Indivduals.

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Carolina Moreno • from United Kingdom

What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

Data is crucial and new tools as the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) are an important source of information to guide policy to leaving no one behind. Several countries are using their National MPI as a tool of policy coordination across sectors, programmes, and levels of government. The MPI is used to align government instruments (budget allocation, targeting, programme and policy design, and so on) with the aim to reduce poverty in all its dimensions.

For example in Colombia’s Roundtable, the MPI level and deprivations of the poor in its component indicators are considered at the national level at a meeting of ministers from relevant sectors, chaired by the President. Ministers deliberately coordinate policies several times a year in order to reduce the deprivations included in the MPI. This is a good example of multi-sectoral, integrated policy development.For more information click here: http://www.mppn.org/national-roundtable-colombia/

Another case is Costa Rica, where the Government will prepare its national budget and allocation of resources among several programmes based on MPI figures. More info here (in Spanish).

Similarly, in Chile, they are using the MPI to create public policies on housing taking into account some of the MPI indicators. See interview.

In Mexico, the Government at different levels is using the national multidimensional poverty measure to inform policy making. As the Executive Director of Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social (Coneval) says in an interview: “Social policy has focused in the multidimensional poverty indicator.”

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Brenda Bush

I have two questions:

1) instead of looking at this from a broad scale, how about choosing a village or tribe, or small community and use them as the test group?  Try the theories, explore, question.  Maybe if it works with that community, the plan will work on a larger scale.  (Taking into consideration that poverty thinking is different in the US vs Russia, vs Rowanda.)  My example would be the US Affordable Care Act.  It failed because they did not use a test area, like a small town/small community to find the weak spots.  The government simply released it nationwide with devastating results for some communities.

2) It seems that this discussion is concerning "individuals" but with group think.  Not all "individuals" want this help.  It's a human condition for some to not want what is good for them. (Otherwise everyone would go to college...?)  What do you do with the dissenters?

Just a thought....

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

The answer to your first question is in your second question and the answer to your second question is in the last part of your first question.

Grouped and uniform facilitation is not going to serve any purpose be it a group of large scale or small scale. Every single individual is counted for the development of the nation and world, their constitution in the world’s wholesomeness is manifesting and significant. Only when every single being are facilitated with opportunities to progress and prosper to their best, the development of the world can be said holistic.

Therefore,
(i) Facilitation needs to be individual specific and not group specific because not even the twin with identical outlook carry same interest, skill, and combinations of both. Even if they are interested in the same field their interest with the field and approach towards a concept will vary, they cannot be 100% identical, in this case how could we expect our uniform facilitation for a group, be it a smaller group or a larger group, to facilitate all within the group. With minor adjustments it would accommodate majority in that group leaving a few unaccomodated, so there eventually we have exclusion or curtailment happening twice, (a) when people adjust to fit within it (b) few who weren’t able to fit themselves with the facilitation. So, this leaves behind some and to ensure that this populace left behind doesn’t stay there, we introduce concession and special reservations for them to parallel the majority who got included into our facilitation, this negates the system’s adherence to the principle on which the facilitation is formed. Now, why do we first stipulate and then dilute it making it unfair for the populace who substantiated themselves through these limitations and stipulates with hardships? Instead why don't we free and liberate opportunities at the beginning to all that lets everyone to take up opportunities that lets them to contribute their best to the world. Wouldn’t cumulating best of all citizens allow the nation and world to accomplish besets development?

(ii) Second, is facilitation needs to be diverse or heterogenic and not uniform or homogenous. Choosing one specific method to source of resources and one specific method to facilitate opportunities ties down the freedom of choice and the best possibilities of the world to minimum excluding (leaving behind) the variance of choices and possibilities originally enabled by the world. This leaves behind the scopes and choices available for the concerned individual to bring out and contribute their best. This again averages the leaps of development basically possible.

Than subsidising medicare expenses, wouldn’t enabling all citizens prosperity that is adequate to their well-being, life standards, emergencies, and securities help them to take care of themselves. Wouldn’t liberating the system and opportunities from the stipulates and restrictive framework include all in earning themselves with all their needs? This would be more progressive than getting subsidised medicare, because even there, there a number of if’s, then’s and only’s. The answer to the second question is, going college is not the only way of goodness or access people have for education, when government recognises the knowledge and nurturance of people without stipulating their learning to be through the set system at educational institute, that is goodness and will have no objectors or dissenters Individuals want help but they may not want it in the way its stipulated for facilitation.

Do we have everyone who passed the educational system settled in their life? Are the knowledge and skills taught through the systems directly fits the needs and demands of employment system? We hire graduates, incubate them for a period of time as probationers, teach them the practical world and employ them into the regular stream. When the system doesn’t ensure 100% employability what is the use of making up the data to 100% education by hustling everyone into schools, college and universities? When the system doesn’t prepare students to 100% fit the world outside why are we confining our officiation just to it?

The answer for the both the question is that opportunities need to be individual specific, facilitated individually to all in the populace. Government should take care of the means people have to earn their living and facilities that will make the nation holistically productive and not grant facilities for free or as subsidy that will make them idle and get detached from their responsibility and from system, exacting more from the populace that is productive, burdening all the responsibilities of idled populace on to them to keep the world balanced.

Hope this helps...

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Julie LaPalme • Director of Programming at Co-operative Housing International from Canada

Housing co-operatives can play a big part in the SDGs. They can help end poverty and hunger by providing safe, affordable and stable homes from which a mutual and lasting economic base can be developed. Moving from informal settlements into sustainable co-operative housing provides a base from which to build access to good sanitation, health services and education. The values and principles of the co-operative movement provide the moral, ethical leadership needed for peace and justice to prevail, for economic and gender equality, and for our stewardship of the planet, taking from it only what is needed for a decent quality of life for all.

As a visible presence in their local communities, housing co-ops are well positioned to be community leaders on these vital long-term goals. As people centred entities, the voices of housing co-ops and the associations and federations that support them need to be heard on sustainable cities and responsible economic development.

 

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Monica Pinilla Roncancio • Researcher at Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative from Colombia

Leave no one behind: Children

In the analysis of multidimensional poverty it is important to recognize that different groups face different deprivations. In the last decades the recognition that long-term sustainable poverty reduction starts with children and that it is not possible to reach developments goals without including children has increased. In this context, there is a need to create measures to analyse the levels of multidimensional poverty of children in different age groups, recognising their differences and also that children are affected by the characteristics of their parents and other family members.

Based on Alkire-Foster multidimensional poverty measures, like the MPI, there are at least two possible approaches to analyse child multidimensional poverty. First, national MPIs, can be age-decomposed to show the proportion of children that live in poor households and the profile of deprivations that their households experience. Second, it is possible to develop a child-specific multidimensional poverty measure that captures the unique attributes of child poverty, including age-specific children deprivations that are usually ignored in household multidimensional poverty.

Both types of analyses provide important information for policy makers. The first provides information related to the deprivations experience by poor households with children; the second allows us to identify specific priorities for different age groups. Measures based on the methodology Alkire Foster are important tools to describe the levels of multidimensional poverty of children and their families; to monitor social policies aiming to reduce deprivations of children and improve their opportunities and to prioritize action to cover the needs of children and their families.

 

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Olga Montúfar Contreras • Personas indigenas con discapacidad at Fundacion Paso a Paso from Mexico

Agradeciendo la oportunidad me permito compartir nuestras perspectivas . Para erradicar la pobreza se requiere de involucrar en todo dialogo a las personas interesadas. las personas indígenas con discapacidad hemos sido un sector de la población no consultado . Puedo mencionar que no existen datos que contribuyan a ver la realidad de nuestras vidas.

Naciones Unidas en los últimos años a presentado una serie de recomendaciones que muy pocos países han tomado en consideración ,sin embargo existe una brecha enorme para verdaderamente sacarnos de la pobreza.

Las personas indígenas con discapacidad nos enfrentamos a la asimilación de dos agendas (pueblos indigenas y personas con discapacidad ) en las que cada una nos mira desde su perspectiva sin considerar nos como un solo grupo social Personas indígenas con discapacidad . El pluralismo jurídico en el que nos encontramos se considera laayor desventaja para poder ejercer nuestros derechos .

Quiero compartir que hoy los programas,políticas y leyes  en la mayoría de los países han sido desarrollas sin  consulta de los sujetos de derechos .

Existe falta de empoderamiento que conlleva a perdidas de capital humano que puede contribuir al crecimiento de nuestros pueblos y países. La carencia de educacion trabajo y empleo  remunerado dificulta nuestra incercion.

Por ultimo añado que toda acción social debe conllevar un plan de corresponsabilidad porque es visto que los gobiernos en pro del cumplimiento para erradicar la pobreza entrega beneficios a grupos sociales que son como obligación del estado y el beneficiario no mantiene ningún proceso de reciprocidad no necesariamente economico que contribuya a la erradicación de la pobreza y al crecimiento del pais

Dr. Anil P. Dongre • Professor at North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India from India

Leaving No One Behind: Making Fraternity Universally Effective

Poverty is very vague term; deliberation and intellectual discussion are taking place on large scale since last 1990's. Many intellectuals define poverty with different dimension may it be in tune with economic, social and nutritional dimension. In connection with current discussion, "Leaving no One Behind", what I feel Poverty is, "deprivation of someone, to live life with dignity".  To this notion poverty is there in some and other form in human society since its inception and it has been deepen with emergence of modern form of conjoined society and worsen by intricate technological advancement.

So to arrive at the state where there is no one with poverty, we require focusing on complex functioning, characters and attributes of the societies.  In Buddha and His Dhamma, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar the father of Indian constitution quoted that, “it is common knowledge that evolution takes place through a struggle for existences because the means of food supply in early times were so limited”. The struggle is bitter. Nature is said to be red in claw and tooth. In this struggle which is bitter and bloody only the fittest survive. Such is the original state of society, even today may be means for leaving supplanted with many other element apart from foods such as education, health, access to technology, information and assets for smooth leaving, sharing in social decision making (resources) and so forth.

Question arises what makes someone fittest and someone weakest (poor) individual - it is off course isolation, exclusiveness, fortification of own group interest, which is antisocial and lead to disorganised and factional society.  Factional state of society comes up with number of different models and standard with resultant of disharmonious society and non-consistency of mind. In such situation individuals with resources accession (fittest) relish       supremacy over others (weakest) irrespective of its rational claims inevitably leads to conflicts and gave birth to poverty.

In the course of ancient past and in current milieu, someone must have raised the question, is the fittest (the strongest) the best? Would not the weakest if protected be ultimately the best for advancing the ends and aims of society (here weakest is person with poverty)?

Then comes, the question what is the way to protect the weak? The simple but toughest way is to impose some restraints upon the fittest. Restraints in terms of making compulsion (here comes the origin and necessity for morality) for   the fittest to work for betterment of weakest – this demand for resource distribution for the poor’s of the society. This morality had to be sacred because it was imposed originally on the fittest, i.e., the strongest.

One of the important dynamics that intellectuals often forgo while framing the policy for poverty eradication is consideration of fraternity. As in struggle of existence the interest of groups, caste, class, creed, sect and religions are protected and so the individual interest and in that poor’s of the society are not safe. These in turn percolate the discrimination and denial of justice more severely for those who lack resources for substance to live life with dignity. Thus better off remain better while those who are born poor remain poor. Consequently there emerges the situation where liberty for well-being remains for some and not for all.

Accordingly if we want the world with “leaving no one behind” we need to work on priority basis for Making Fraternity Universally Effective strenuously along with common rule of morality with relevant common models and ideals. ……….         

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

True, poverty is "deprivation of life with dignity". But does it really rise from the world being globalised and for the advancement of technology or is it for the facilitations we have that doesn't adapt the advancements of technology in enabling the ease and connectivity enabled by the globalised world?

Thank you for highlighting the book of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and the excerpt from the book. This excerpt quoted from the book along with the entire content of the book supports the principles of the Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that facilitations need to be individual specific. Let's start analysing the content from the excerpt made, 

“It is common knowledge that evolution takes place through a struggle for existence, because the means of food supply in early times were so limited. The struggle is bitter. Nature is said to be red in claw and tooth. In this struggle, which is bitter and bloody, only the fittest survive. Such is the original state of society.”

These words where to explain why principles is scared and why it should be violated or questioned. Its an excerpt from the subtitle that explains mere morality ‘principles’ is not enough but it needs to scared and universal, that is principles to which we anchor our living and functioning must include all, it must not be restricted or constrained within a region or religion specific morality but it must based on universal morality that must be accepted without violations.

The above excerpted text was to explain why morality ‘Principles” made sacred. Let us look into the content of this subtitle in full that will enable us better understanding as in why we need to stick to Constitution and Universal declaration of Human Rights, the basic principles set,
(i) to government in its functioning and facilitation, and 

(ii) to the people in its living and functioning.
 

In the book, it is said that there are three parts to have played its role in making morality sacred,

(i) the social need for protecting the best

(ii) the way to protect the weak without constraining the strong, to protect social from becoming anti-social

(iii) to safeguard the growth of individual.

 

i. Excerpt that deals with the social need of protecting the best:

why morality should [=should morality] have been made sacred? Three factors seem to have played their part in making morality sacred.The first factor is the social need for protecting the best. The background of this question lies imbedded in what is called the struggle of existence and the survival of the fittest. This arises out of the theory of evolution. It is common knowledge that evolution takes place through a struggle for existence, because the means of food supply in early times were so limited. The struggle is bitter. Nature is said to be red in claw and tooth. In this struggle, which is bitter and bloody, only the fittest survive. Such is the original state of society.”

This excerpt explains that we need to protect and adapt to the changes and betterment we have accomplished through the evolution and not to stick to the old or precedence. Morality is in protecting and promoting the best and not in restricting or constraining ourselves to the old. Survival of the fittest was the concept of living and facilitation when the world had limited resources for living.

The fact is nature was really not red in claw and tooth but the ignorance and restriction that we had in accessing and use of resource made usto feel nature as red in claw and tooth. It was the resources and abundance of nature that supported in the origin of everything in and under the world, its our ignorance, the constraints and limitation it bought to us that was ‘red in claw and tooth’ but not the nature in reality.

Without cognising the real and full scope of betterment and ease of life we have for the advancements we have accomplished through evolution is an act of making the world red in claw and tooth because we ignore the possibility and restrict the living of the world to a shrunken environment for and with our authority that puts them to pressures, bombardments to secure a place for them within the limited space making the world remain barbarous. 

Therefore, we need to liberate the limitations and restriction we have set the world through our design that it makes the world live with its morality.

 

ii. Excerpt that deals about protecting social from becoming anti-social:
In the course of [the] ancient past someone must have raised the question, is the fittest (the strongest) the best? Would not the weakest, if protected, be ultimately the best for advancing the ends and aims of society? The then prevailing state of society seems to have given an answer in the affirmative. Then comes, the question what is the way to protect the weak? Nothing less than to impose some restraints upon the fittest. In this lies the origin and necessity for morality. This morality had to be sacred, because it was imposed originally on the fittest, i.e., the strongest. This has very serious consequences. First, does morality in becoming social become anti-social? It is not that there is no morality among thieves. There is morality among businessmen. There is morality among fellow castemen and there is also morality among a gang of robbers. But this morality is marked by isolation and exclusiveness. It is a morality to protect "group interest." It is therefore anti-social. It is the isolation and exclusiveness of this kind of morality which throws its anti-social spirit in[to] relief. The same is true where a group observes morality because it has interests of its own to protect. The results of this group organisation of society are far-reaching. If society continues to consist of anti-social groups, society will remain a disorganised and a factional society. The danger of a disorganised and factional state of society is that it sets up a number of different models and standards. In the absence of common models and common standards, society cannot be a harmonious whole, With such different models and standards, it is impossible for the individual to attain consistency of mind. A society which rests upon the supremacy of one group over another, irrespective of its rational or proportionate claims, inevitably leads to conflict. The only way to put a stop to conflict is to have common rules of morality which are sacred to all.”

This part of the content explains how elevating the weakest or the excluded can be done to just and morale. Grabbing the accomplishments or snatching what they have added to them as savings or earnings to balance the weakest. That isn’t social but anti-social. Morality or principle is not the group specific or interest specific guidelines that demarcates and differentiates populace discriminating each other. 

iii. Excerpt that deals about safeguarding the growth of individuals:

"There is the third factor which requires morality to be made sacred and universal. It is to safeguard the growth of the individual. Under the struggle for existence or under group rule the interests of the individuals are not safe. The group set-up prevents an individual from acquiring consistency of mind, which is possible only when society has common ideals, common models. His thoughts are led astray, and this creates a mind whose seeing unity is forced and distorted. Secondly, the group set-up leads to discrimination and denial of justice. The group set-up leads to stratification of classes. Those who are masters remain masters, and those who are born in slavery remain slaves. Owners remain owners, and workers remain workers. The privileged remain privileged, and the serfs remain serfs. This means that there can be liberty for some, but not for all. This  means that there can be equality for a few, but none for the majority. What is the remedy? The only remedy lies in making fraternity universally effective. What is fraternity? It is nothing but another name for [the] brotherhood of men--which is another name for morality. This is why the Buddha preached that Dhamma is morality; and as Dhamma is sacred, so is morality.”

 

This part explains why the worlds needs to be individual specific and set on a broader spectrum that includes all for their individuality. In a group format, people within the group who are governed by a head and for a group specific principle are forced to abide to the ruling of the head and for the group specific principle to fit within the group and get facilitated with what it facilitates, it doesn’t enable any wisdom, learning or experience to the individual, it doesn’t allow an individual to prepare and bring his mind to a balance that is needed for a human individual to be holistic and responsible in life. 

What is universally valid can only be morality or principle, an entity that fits to all and includes all is morality, anything that stipulates, restricts, limits freedom enabled to people within this principled fundamentals or that alters the universality of this principles to group specific, is anti-social. We cannot manipulate something to our convenience, when the fundamental morality of the government says every individual is free to take up opportunities through the resources of the state for their individuality to enable progress and prosperity to their self and the world, we cannot manipulate the freedom forming groups, majority and minority. 

In democracy, constitution and to the globalisation, Universal Declaration of Human Rights are their respective dhamma.

"Religion, it is said, is personal, and one must keep it to oneself. One must not let it play its part in public life. Contrary to this, Dhamma is social. It is fundamentally and essentially so. Dhamma is righteousness, which means right relations between man and man in all spheres of life. From this it is evident that one man, if he is alone, does not need Dhamma. But when there are two men living in relation to each other, they must find a place for Dhamma whether they like it or not. Neither can escape it. In other words. Society cannot do without Dhamma. Society has to choose one of the three alternatives. Society may choose not to have any Dhamma as an instrument of Government.  For Dhamma is nothing if it is not an instrument of Government. This means Society chooses the road to anarchy. Secondly, Society may choose the police--i.e., dictatorship--as an instrument of Government. Thirdly, Society may choose Dhamma, plus the Magistrate wherever people fail to observe the Dhamma. In anarchy and dictatorship liberty is lost. Only in the third [case] liberty survives. Those who want liberty must therefore have Dhamma. Now what is Dhamma? and why is Dhamma necessary?  According to the Buddha, Dhamma consists of Prajna and Karuna. What is Prajna? And why Prajna? Prajna is understanding. The Buddha made Prajna one of the two corner-stones of His Dhamma because he did not wish to leave any room for superstition. What is Karuna? And why Karuna? Karuna is love. Because without it, Society can neither live nor grow; that is why the Buddha made it the second corner-stone of His Dhamma. Such is the definition of the Buddha's Dhamma." 

This excerpt says how is dharma different from religion and why is dharma important in a society. Here, it is said that the society may choose to be in three forms,

  1. Not to have any dharma as an instrument of government. By this society chooses to be in anarchy as for dharma is nothing if it is not an instrument of government and so is to the government.
  2. Society may choose police - dictatorship as an instrument of government. It may choose policing, controlling, punishing population to be within the boundary line it has drawn 
  3. Society may choose dhamma plus the magistrate  wherever people fail to observe the dhamma. Here we don't punish, deprive or torture people who don’t conform to dhamma, but counsel, teach and regulate them to observe the principles when they fail to observe the morality.

So, the first two form is not democratic, it doesn’t facilitate liberty to people whereas the third form of society will include everyone to progress and prosperity enabling them with responsible liberty. This is what is also principled through the Constitution and Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  Having the world set to the second form of society with anti-social specifications, we cannot expect fraternity or brotherhood to spread. There can only be evils, problems, inequality and calamity as the system we have setup doesn’t facilitates or conforms to the factors it is expected to facilitate and abide to. Unfortunately, if we could analyse, we can find the society or the world at present is set on the first two format of society described above.

Principles of Constitution has to facilitated as it is, it cannot be modified, tuned or tailored for the convenience and misconception of the world. When it says every individual has the liberty to design their living and progress for the common principle of social and human progress, we cannot tailor it uniformly for a group in specific to their interest that takes away the space and scopes of individual liberty enabled to all in the global populace.
 

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

I feel it might be about time we begin drawing some, at least some, initial conclusions from this very rich discussion. Let me do some "mind-storming",

we might then do some brain-storming too, if you so wish. So don't expect order in what follows, please.

There are so many constraints one cannot expect to do a perfect job;

However, as they say in China, every undertaking, even a huge undertaking as ours, begins with the first step;

And this discussion shows clearly that conditions vary from region to region, from country to country and even within countries themselves;

Bases from which to start are very different; so the goals each region/country set cannot be identical goals, or the time horizon, number of steps and approach are bound to differ;

Culture, religion, history, politics, economics, races, social levels & their inter-connection, all these elements are different. As many of you have pointed out, they do have a considerable bearing in our present levels of poverty and thus will define the actual launching platform and how to plan regarding the goals to be attained;

Many of you have pointed at corruption and how corruption dilutes and distorts aid; so the manner in which aid is channelled must be carefully adapted, which will required a great deal of diplomacy, but which will make the difference between effective and non-effective aid. The poorer the country, the most important this consideration, which  is something I feel must be faced bluntly;

The differences you have discussed will mean one shall need to coordinate education-health-shelter-education of the educators-aid in different ways, with regard to regions, countries, districts within countries;

I feel each one of you is able to think of ways of tackling our goal or goals (in fact you have addressed most of these ways through your fertile comments).

I have just tried to see whether we can begin to work on  some tentative conclusions. These are just some ideas. 

Danilo Parmegiani • UN/NGO Main Representative at Legion of Good Will from United States

“Leaving no one behind” is a pledge that requires an unprecedented commitment in the spirit of Good Will and real cooperation. These are values that inspired the United Nations’ charter, and now, at this defining moment in human history, they must become the foundation of our actions moving forward.

I represent the Legion of Good Will, LGW (Legião da Boa Vontade, LBV), a Brazilian originated civil society organization dedicated to promoting educational and social assistance programs to help reduce poverty and social inequalities in 150 communities across seven countries: Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Portugal and in the United States.

Throughout 67 years of experience, we have learned that the most effective method in overcoming poverty is through a holistic approach that addresses the diverse needs of individuals- the biological, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions.

Our outcomes prove that it is as equally important to provide essential social services and quality education as it is to restore hope, human dignity, and develop a higher consciousness towards a solidary, altruistic and ecumenical society.

In the past five years, more than 1.7 million people were positively impacted by the Legion of Good Will’s work. Even in the most vulnerable communities, we have found effective outcomes such as high levels of increased academic performance and social mobility.

For this reason, we believe that it is vital to strengthen Education for a Global Citizenship, because this focus empowers people, who can rise to the challenges facing the 21st century.  

We invite all to read our recommendations in the Good Will magazine (available online at: http://www.boavontade.com/sites/default/files/content-type-documents/bv…), where we share our best practices in implementing Education, Sustainability, and Global Citizenship as levers for sustainable development. 

Sascha Düerkop • General Secretary at Confederation of Independent Football Associations from Germany

Eradicating Poverty is easy and straightforward - you simply have to re-distribute wealth and create avenues of income for those struggling in the long run. While that sounds incredibly easy, it is in fact not, as "leaving no one behind" is the true challenge, as most contributors figured out correctly.

After working with minorities, partly and completely unrecognized nations and "muted communities" for a couple of years now, I feel qualified enough to criticize a few approaches and to give my vision for improvement:

  • While the United Nations say and claim that they do not want to "leave anyone behind", they still do so. I have been on the ground in Nagorno-Karabakh, in Abkhazia, in Transnistria and in South Ossetia lately. The only UN staff I saw in those highly vulnerable and suffering regions was "stationed" in Abkhazia. In fact, he was based in Tbilisi and was also "working on Abkhazia" to eradicate poverty in the region. However, he was not allowed to cooperate or even speak with the "local authorities" in any way, which led to a complete inability to seriously do anything on the ground. It was not me observing that, but that very UN worker, who complained about the diplomatic dilemmas that forbids him to do anything or even observe anything. He was left with no option, but sipping cocktails at the seaside for a day, before returning to Tbilisi.
    As mentioned above, this was the only UN staff I ever met in a non-recognized country (except for Kosovo, where I met plenty). I understand the diplomatic reasons for the limited work there very well, but still it completely ignores the fact that in such regions there are many suffering poor people, who are completely left behind for a simple reason: The bigger political game, on which the civil society in none of the mentioned "states" has any effect. Even worse, that blockade is leaving the people and their "authorities" with no option, but looking for other options for help, a fact the whole world mourns about afterwards. And surely, those other options are looking for anything else, but for "humanitarian reasons" at such "states".
    If the UN is serious about "leaving no one behind" it must become "apolitical" in humanitarian missions and must do all it can to help those who suffer!
  • In other surroundings I constantly work, people are left behind, because they belong to some kind of minority: Some indigenous group, some linguistic or ethnic minority or any other discriminated group of individuals. In all those cases humanitarian aid is given to stately entities that do not distribute it to the "unliked" communities, but rather keep it for the majority. This problem is seen everywhere on our planet and is also well-measured by plenty of NGOs and the United Nations itself in several studies.
    There is no easy answer to overcome that issue, but I strongly believe in the "education is the way out of poverty" rule. That said, I think that teaching minorities groups in English and educate them in basic things in English can be a first step towards a better future. With a profound knowledge in English and a computer with internet access, the knowledge of the world can be yours today. Secondary, that alone will enable minorities and "left behind" communities to internationally make aware of their suffocation and look for support globally - which I think is a very powerful tool!
  • Lastly, I eye-witnessed too much "poverty vacation" to ever forget about it. Thousands of "volunteers" pay a fortune to travel to some random African village and build a well for some random NGO. While there are fantastic NGOs all over the world, and I met many of those, there are also hundreds of NGOs that are nothing more than "adventure holiday sellers". That truly disgusts me. All those agencies who offer me "going to X to build a well in 3 months for only 15.000 Euro" are either a complete waste of resources or, even though with good intentions, run in the complete wrong direction.
    I personally strongly believe in the potential of people everywhere on earth's face and I think the best way to raise such potential is not by sending amateurs to build a well, but by approaching them on an eye-level. I personally went to a couple of places where poverty is ever-present and always started by asking "how can I help you guys?" and the answer was never: "Build me a wall", but "we need material", "we need publicity of our cause" or "teach me how to X". I never even assumed for a second, that I am generally better in "getting things done" than any other people I met, because it is just false. I am worse in building wells than everyone whoever touched a brick. What I did is actually working in very poor areas. I got a salary by local standards, sometimes not even 10% of my earnings in Germany, and I did what I am good in: Teaching University level Math, Writing Business Plans, Public Relations, etc.
    That way I could set a footprint and I am very proud that students I taught made it to international top universities or set up their own successful NGOs or businesses. Those people do now help themselves and their community every single day with the skills they won. Those people are fighting and winning against poverty, because they are skilled and smart and I did my little part to raise that potential.
    That said, I strongly propose to not treat people different. We should not "empower minorities" or "help people" who never asked for it. Instead, we should work together with everyone, everywhere and not always look at our benefit - that's all we need to do.

Thank you for taking the time to read that and giving me the opportunity to bring in my opinion. Any feedback would be extremely welcome anytime!
Should you be interested in the very unique NGO I found, please see www.conifa.org, the first and only NGO that connects people that are "left behind", through football, but going much further than that!

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Monica Pinilla Roncancio • Researcher at Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative from Colombia

Disability

Talking about poverty without analyzing how it affects different groups it is impossible. No all poor individuals or families are the same, and certain groups are more vulnerable to poverty. In the last decades empirical evidence showing the relationship between disability and poverty has increased, but still we do not completely understand how this relationship is created or why. 

In order to include people with disabilities in social policies and strategies to reduce poverty, we need to know more details about their levels of poverty and deprivation. We need to understand what their needs are and see disability from a human rights perspective, where access to social services and opportunities is the rule and not the exception. Leaving no one behind does not mean including everyone in all types of strategies, without acknowledging their own differences, it is creating a set of strategies that contribute to improve their lives, reducing their levels of deprivation and most important that guarantee equal access to opportunities no matter your health condition or disability status.

In the case of disability, we need to know how many they are, what are their characteristics, how poor they are and where are they, we need to collect data on disability, analyse this data and propose informed solutions. This does not mean not to do anything before having the information, but means to make a major effort to improve data on disability, aiming to provide evidence to policy makers in order that they take informed decisions and propose policies that have a real effect on the lives of millions of people with disabilities around the world.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

The best possible way of including differently abled individuals is enabling them the opportunity to participate from the environment that they have designed for them. Putting them into a common environment and expecting them to feel equal, inclusive and productive is the height of injustice and inhumanity we can ever do to them.

Being inclusive doesn't mean or demand the presence, it is just mean the opportunity for participation and contribution must be free of all restriction that would enable individuals to share their skills and knowledge being at their environment of comfort that would further enable them to contribute to their fullest.

At present, the policies and the opportunities are not bridged properly and when they are not bridged, inequality and inequities are eventual. On one hand, we campaign for equality and inclusion and on another hand the facilitations we enable are with filters of eligibility, criteria, standards, formats, procedures, frameworks and other such if's, that mandates the process of "selection-rejection" where exclusion is its basic trait.

When facilitation is through a framework, it facilitates only those who could mould themselves to fit within it and the rest are forced to lead a deprived life with no fault at their end. Individual specific facilitation will support both the government and the world to be inclusive. To government, individual specific facilitation will enable opportunity to facilitate every single citizen for their individuality that is descended to them by nature to serve their purpose of birth. When the purpose of birth is served, individuals of the world will be enabled with progressive attitudes and soul-satisfaction. When there is soul satisfaction, individuals will be void of evacuations and aggression that would seed and spread peace all over the world.

To the world, individual specific facilitation will enable the space of being inclusive. When a place is assured for the individuality of all, individually, without any general framework that would put them into the process of "selection-rejection", the soul of the individual will be to transcendence and accept the growth and development of all individual which would eventually enable the world to mutualise and multiply the result of contributions made. The general pattern of facilitation, puts an individual into comparison and demands an environment which imposes "Survival of the fittest" where expecting individuals to be inclusive, progressive and transcendent is impossible. When individual specific facilitation validated by the UDHR is enabled, there will be no comparison or survival of the fittest environment. Here everyone is considered fittest for their own ability and skills and are enabled opportunity for their inheritance that they already own. In this situation, being inclusive is progressively and holistically possible. Even for the differently abled, the opportunities that are enabled to them as a concession, creates a factor of exclusion to them in the general paradigm where the difference for exclusion is easily created for the partial liberalisation of framework or opportunities.

Living for the differently abled is made all the more difficult for this difference of partiality that they receive at ease in the common paradigm. Building confidence and independence to the differently abled are taught or trained in such a way that they are forced to take up rigidity, strong attitude and a quality of adamance and egotism. Which in inside, makes them feels the pressure of being differently abled in greater magnitude.

If individual specific pattern is enabled, individuals, be it differently abled or uniquely abled (common individuals having different spectrum of skills) everyone gets their due space for facilitation and participation for what they feel as their core ability or skill, ultimately, evolving an environment that is needed for the world to be inclusive.

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Alice Kamau

I feel that what is hard to achieve is the accessibility of resources by the people who are affected by extreme provety, funds are set aside to assist the less priviliged but unfortunately end up in the hands of greedy people who enrich themselves with this funds, ways and mechanisms should be established to make sure that the funds reach the targeted groups otherwise year after funds will be set aside and the fight against poverty is far from won,

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Funding people is not a progressive solution, because,

(i) It taxes and exacts equivalence from the productive populace to balance the freebies and financial aid enabled to the populace in poverty.

(ii) It doesn't include people in development, when living and livelihood of people in poverty are aided they are excluded from participating in the developmental pursuits of the world. They refrain from fulfilling their duty as a citizen of the world and a constituent of the humanity. We are not focusing on the cause of poverty but superficially trying to wipe out poverty which is impossible. Unless their idleness in life is not taken away, they will eternally constitute to poverty as, once we settle them with all aid and needs, the world, on the other hand, will be progressing continuously making the aid we enabled to them insufficient to balance the growth we accomplish.

To elevate people from poverty, we need to include them in the developmental pursuit of the world with opportunities for their individuality. This is a just and progressive way of making the world holistic and equal.

Government must be open for people to claim with the opportunity they need for development, duty of the government is not to substantiate people's ability to take up opportunity it has stipulated or officiated as common or general but to include all of its citizens individually facilitating them with all progressive opportunities they design for their individuality ensuring that every citizen's life and functioning of the world is set productive.

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Naome Chakanya

I totally agree with you. Most state institutions especially in Africa have been infested by a virus called corruption. The needy are not the eventual beneficiary of funds.

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Alice Kamau

It seems like we are not talking about same certain kind of people Dr.Priya ,you see in Kenya where I come from there are people who live in extreme poverty that they cant even be in a position to be in the know how of what is happening in the world ,somehow you are contradicting yourself in your comment when you say that funding the poor is not the solution and yet you go again and say that there is need to find how they can get aid and their needs be addressed ,my point is and I have seen this as a greater problem to poverty eradication ,few educated selfish people are aware of the resources provided to fight poverty and unfortunately take advantage of this grants to enrich themselves ,the opportunities and funds never address the actual beneficiaries that is why my suggest is that grassroot organizations and local administration should be involved in the process of eradicating poverty ,otherwise research has shown that there are some group of people disguise themselves as NGOS to receives funding not for humanity but for themselves

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

Ms.Alice Kamau, it is not contradicting, there is a difference, funding people directly is not a solution because it idles them without taking part in the progress of the nation and the world. Be it poor or rich, educated or uneducated, employed, unemployed or underemployed everyone, every single individual being, constitute to the nation's and globe's identity and development, when they are simply granted with funding and subsidies, we are taking away their share of developmental quotient that prevents us from accomplishing holistic and full development.

 

Helping them to aid their needs and living, means, the government help people with opportunities to education and employment for their individual skill and preference without generalising the means and content of knowledge that enables every single individual of the nation and the globe to nurture their individual skills and ability to a useful form making them earn their living and life standards by contributing their share of progress to the world.

 

There is a difference here and they do not contradict.

 

Yes, funding and resource provided to people doesn't reach them and are confiscated by middlemen. This is the case not only in Kenya but in almost all places. 

 

Even though this is wrong and illegal, we got to look into the mindset behind. NGOs, middlemen and the stream through which the funds and resources reach the poor are no better than the poor. Their living, life pattern and life standards would be a line higher than the poor, when the poor could be granted with all benefits just for being poor without doing any work, wouldn’t they find it justified to take a part of it as they are no better than the poor and that they aren’t like the ones getting benefitted with the funds and resources for free, they work. Being poor doesn’t stop with what we define through the calculations we make through a specific formula, anyone who is unable to meet with his/her needs of his self or his family is poor. 

 

When the act of freely enabling grant to people cannot be justified, the justification middlemen have for taking a part of aid cannot be renounced or refuted. Benefits, social value, perks and allowance to government officials are enabled to make them transcend in including all progressive opportunities people claim for their progress and prosperity.

People in the middle take advantage of the resources enabled to poor only when it is materialistic benefits, but when we concentrate on alleviating poverty through facilitating liberated opportunities for education and work that makes individual to lift themselves from poverty there can be no confiscation or inequity.

In a democratic and free world or nation, it isn’t just to say people are unaware and ignorant, because, democracy is government for, of and by the people. It is the duty of the government to lift people from their ignorance. NGO’s or any other volunteering organisation should connect the citizen with the government and must not work in a way that annuls or overrules the government and its working. Volunteering activities and NGO’s should orient government in fulfilling its duty and must provide cognisance to the citizens in being responsible and to take part in the progress of the nation and in the functioning of the government. Instead when volunteering organisation break the link between the citizens and government, dominating with their presence it is a sign for another deprivation and uprise  of conflict. Nothing more can be immoral or vile or appalling for a world than for its citizens to retort or revolt against its government due to fear, suspicion or distrust. NGOs and volunteering organisation shouldn’t be to prove the government to be incapable or in inability, instead it should add to the government and strengthen it.

When the informed citizens could be liberated from the general frameworks of the government that enable them to participate in the works of the nation for their individuality, we can include the excluded populace within the general framework and enable them with the needed support and guidance to nurture themselves in becoming sovereign individuals. 
 

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Alice Kamau

U can't not educate a hungry person,u cannot educate a person with no shelter basic need comes first before education and unfortunately the extremely poor lack this and if this not taken care of the the fight against poverty is not meant for a certain kind of poor  people,u r viewing middle class, my view is of people who cannot afford food,shelter and clothing, before u think of educating them ,think of how they can access basic needs,there is a project by our Kenyan government to provide every child with a laptop in school but we have seen parents trading them for food so we have to look at step one first ,how do we go about poverty eradication and leaving no one behind,different people needs different approach

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Alice Kamau

Surely you cannot blame people for been poor,poverty is something nothing someone want for themselves,sometimes the poor are helpless n don't have any way of coming out of it unless they are helped out of it

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Naome Chakanya

How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?

I ma glad to share my views on this platform. I am from Zimbabwe and my view is that past policies have failed to address poverty issues because they have not been putting the needs for the citizens at the forefront. For example, national budgets allocations have neglected more allocation to socio-economic rights, meaning budgets have not been pro-poor. They have not prioritised allocations to ministries dealing with education, health, water and sanitation but rather to security ministries such as defence and home affairs at a time when a country is not at war at all. Governments budgets have failed to meet the international benchmarks e.g. the Abuja Declaration implored countries to allocate at least 15% of their budget towards health, Maputo Declaration  requires 10% of the budget towards agriculture and the Dakar Declaration requires 20% budget allocation towards education. These social economic rights are drivers towards lifting people out of poverty.

Secondly, various studies show that the nexus between economic growth and poverty reduction is decent employment. It is not the quantum of employment that will lift our people out of poverty but is the the quality of employment that lifts people out of poverty. May of the African people are trapped in jobs in the informal econ0omy with low productivity and indecent working conditions. Policies should aim at supporting people in the informal economy to high productivity levels. Unfortunately mot government policies only focus on the formal economy (which is already shrinking) and neglecting focusing on the informal economy where the majority of the people are.

Thirdly, there is need for African governments to serious about using the vast natural resources to transform the lives of people. Plugging the holes of Illicit financial flows from natural resources and redirecting it towards socio-economic development is also a master key to catapult people out of poverty.  

Bien être et solidarité
Claude NKOYA • Chargé des Finances at FONDATION DES OEUVRES POUR LA SOLIDARITE ET LE BIEN ETRE SOCIAL from Congo - Kinshasa

La RD Congo est  grand pays au centre de l'Afrique avec une superficie de 2 345 410 km carré. Ce pays compte plus 80 pourcent de terre arable et plus de 4 000 cours d'eau poissonneux et 42 km de côte sur l'océan atlantique. Avec une population de plus de 80 millions d'habitants dont 53 pourcent de femmes. En elle seule la RD Congo peut constituer un grand marché intérieur. Mais si on veut compter avec les pays voisins, elle a 11 pays limitrophe. Cela constitue des atouts majeurs pour aider ce pays à éradiquer la crise en faisant en sorte que l'on commence à exploiter ces ressources du secteur primaire dont l'agriculture, la pêche et l'élevage. les échanges doivent être encouragés entre les provinces et aussi entre les peuples des pays limitrophes. Pour y parvenir il faut que le Gouvernement soit le catalyseur de ces actions dans la construction des infrastructures telles les routes de dessertes agricoles, l'acquisition des engins tels que tracteurs et autres et surtout abolir diverses tracasseries qu'on y remarque. Le cas de mon pays peut s'appliquer aussi dans d'autres pays voisin de la R D Congo.

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IAFN • from Canada

At the 2016 HLPF, countries reported voluntarily on the achievements toward implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including how they have integrated the SDGs in national development plans and strategies,and the overarching challenges they faced in the process. This is a good way to keep track of the effectiveness of policies in leaving no one behing in the achievement of the SDGs worldwide. 

Agriculture is the primary driver to abate hunger and reduce poverty, which is felt acutely in rural areas. Throughout history, agricultural prosperity has gone hand in hand with successful economies. And food security has a direct impact on national security–politically, socially and economically. Food security and nutrition also underpin achievement of health goals. Goal 2 inextricably links nutrition to agriculture, as well as to many other Goals related to health, land use, climate change, water, sanitation, education, employment, social protection, infrastructure, gender equality and resilience. For this reason, it is crucial that all stakeholders contribute actively to leave no one behind and moreover, that no one is left hungry. Moreover, eradicating poverty and hunger are integrally linked to boosting food production, agricultural productivity and rural incomes. In order to ensure the boost of investments in food production and agriculture in general, public and private capital flows and development assistance are going to be needed more and more to provide farmers and agri-entrepreneurs with healthy soils, water and plant genetic resources that are key inputs into food production.

Finally, a full commitment to global partnership and cooperation will help in the full realization of the SDGs. At this respect, all efforts should be framed around the 5 key Ps: people, planet, prosperity peace and partnerships. These should also entail synergistic solutions, recognising the interconnectedness of distinct environments and populations and based on clear indicators able to be operationalized in differing contexts. 

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Dr Adolphe O. Amadi

Nigeria is currently practicing a unique form of democratic governance which tends to ignore the people soon after elections. Policies and programmes designed to involve both the people and the media as watchdogs of office holders, will serve to reaffirm the saying that the more strictly one is watched, the better he or she behaves.

Corruption, bad governance, ethnicity, impunity, citizens’ apathy, cynicism and docility, compounded by a peculiar democratic system that excludes the people in governance, constitute the greatest obstacle to Nigeria’s socio-economic and political development.

Convinced that the Global Goals will be unattainable unless and until the people are reintegrated into Nigeria’s governance architecture, Self-Help Development Facilitators (SEDFA) designed and is now implementing the European Union (EU) sponsored  The Ask the People Initiative, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). As its title suggests, the simple, most powerful and sustainable mechanism for holding Nigeria’s thieves of state to account is to mainstream and popularize SEDFA’s new governance maxim and modality which is anchored upon the belief that simply involving the people themselves, their community leaders, Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and the media, in assessing and “voicing” the exact status of projects in their areas, rather than the current situation whereby service providers themselves proclaim their subjective self-evaluation, will serve to mitigate impunity and corruption in a more sustainable way.

Against this backdrop, Nigeria requires global partnerships and assistance in crafting and implementing more pragmatic policies and programmes such as participatory budgeting, tracking and transparent execution of projects in order to ensure that the country does not derail from the path of joining the comity of nations, thereby upholding and walking the SDGs’ talk.

 

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Khalil Nasr

In my point of view working out a solution to the main reasons of poverty is much better than having temporer solutions . I don't think it would be possible to eradicate poverty unless all countries especially the ones which have the Vito in the UN ,exert sincere efforts to put an end to the the endless wars and disputes taking place everywhere in the world , such as the Israeli, Palestinian one . Moreover I think if the UN can do something to eliminate the illegal weapons trade ,then most disputes will come to an end as I think that half of the money, spent on arms and weapons can put an end to poverty everywhere in the globe as well as having positive reflection on the disputes and conflicts arising all over the world .
On the other hand efforts must be given to establishing new projects in the poor countries like Egypt ,which have a high ratio of population as they live in just 10 percent of its land by making plans to set up new modern cities by digging canals from both the Red Sea and The Mediterranean Sea into the desert . This can be used as means of transport , fishing , good landscape as well as attracting people to move there on condition there is a way to use modern technology in turning sea water to be used for cultivation and drinking which will help greatly in reclaiming the desert and searching for oil and minerals in its vast desert and setting up different kinds of projects .

Shah Tasadduque Ali Khan • Executive Director at Participatory Human Rights Advancement Society from Bangladesh

Dear All,

Greetings!!

I would like to thank you all for giving me the opportunity to join & share my views with this discussion. My country is Bangladesh.

There are so many problems in developing countries. We have to face it in present & in future. Problems we face are our reality and wait for help in finding solutions to reduce future risks.

In my point of view I try to highlight the problems.

Population in our country increasing day by day but land not increasing parallel.  They cut the green area specifically the agricultural land by building houses & making unplanned extremely big residential housing projects in different prominent places specifically the capital city as well as district town in the country. This unplanned use of agricultural land will lead to a shortage of agricultural crops in this region. As a result, increasing poverty & population rapidly with decreased agricultural food production.

People have to migrate for searching works in different cities & countries. In many family working people are living abroad for their work and sending foreign remittances for their families in village. Their family has to depend on purchasing everything for their daily family needs. Due to shortage of agriculture land they are not directly involved with agricultural production. Farmers are facing hard crisis for agricultural land for food production and on the other part aristocrat class & landlords has huge lands found in uncultivated, barren or partly cultivated. To eradicate poverty we need kind attention on it. We have to more caring for our poor farmers so that they can be able to find cultivable agricultural land or farmers can get adequate leased  cultivable agricultural land from aristocrat class & landlords for increasing our agricultural production.     

The world population is increasing so very rapidly and cultivable agricultural land is not enough so to eradicate poverty specifically developing countries need special care on highly technologically advanced & sophisticated agricultural production systems.

  • 7. 4 billion The world population in 2016.(reference: http://www.prb.org/pdf16/prb-wpds2016-web-2016.pdf )
  • 526 Average global population per square kilometer of arable land — 239 in more developed countries, 697 in less developed. (reference: http://www.prb.org/pdf16/prb-wpds2016-web-2016.pdf )
  • The world population will reach 9.9 billion in 2050, up 33 percent from an estimated 7.4 billion now, according to projections included in the 2016 World Population Data Sheet from the Population Reference Bureau (PRB).

 

Agriculture is the largest source of income and employment for poor rural families.

  • 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52 per cent of the land used for agriculture is moderately or severely affected by soil degradation 
  • 74 per cent of the poor are directly affected by land degradation globally

Microcredit is sometimes is not suitable for all class of borrowers or farmers because all class of borrowers are not able to change their economic position because they don’t know or they don’t have proper skills how to use credit to generate income. Sometimes farmers are failing to pay the loan on time and they search for another loan to repay the high interest loan. Two factors limit the use of credit as an instrument for poverty eradication, credit cannot be easily targeted to reach the poor & the poorest of the poor cannot make use of credit because they are in no position to undertake an economic activity.

“The non-entrepreneurial poor do not know how to use credit to generate income.”...”The fact is that the vast majority of the most destitute and the "poorest of the poor" are likely to figure among the non-entrepreneurial poor although there is no conclusive evidence of a direct relationship between the level of poverty and the skills and willingness to run a business.”...” Yet while all poor people need to own more assets to generate more income, not all of the poor can express a viable demand for credit to finance the acquisition of these assets. In fact, as mentioned above, the poorest are the least likely to be in a position to express such a demand.” (p. 8)

Source: Garson, Jose. Microfinance and Anti-Poverty Strategies. A Donor Perspective. UNCDF. http://www.undp.org/uncdf/pubs/mf/mf-chap1.htm#a

“Two factors limit the use of credit as an instrument for poverty eradication: (a) credit cannot be easily targeted to reach the poor and (b) many poor people, especially (but not only) the poorest of the poor, cannot make use of credit because they are in no position to undertake an economic activity.” (p. 7) Source: Garson, Jose. Microfinance and Anti-Poverty Strategies. A Donor Perspective. UNCDF. http://www.undp.org/uncdf/pubs/mf/mf-chap1.htm#a

 “Most of the people in the world are poor, so if we knew the economics of being poor we would know much of the economics that really matters. Most of the world's poor people earn their living from agriculture, so if we knew the economics of agriculture we would know much of the economics of being poor” (Shultz, 1979).

Finally, I would like to conclude my views with Shultz (1979) that, most of the world's poor people earn their living from agriculture, so if we knew the economics of agriculture we would know much of the economics of being poor. Thank you all.

 

 

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

There unfortunately is a scenario existing worldwide that focuses merely on economy. Every activity that both pursued by the citizens and by the government are aimed towards money making or economic gains where we left behind the chains and intermediate factors that connects workmanship and economy. 

The actual process of development is workmanship -> progress -> economy. In today's rapid world people or the world doesn't work for progress but directly for economy, this takes away the purpose, balance and equity in development.

Agriculture today is not given any focus because we did not focus in upgrading the workings of agricultural sector. Before the wave of science and technology captured and held the world within its influence, people lived with nature. They know to read and live according to the signs shown to them by the nature. Today, the world is not so. We don't know nature, without looking into the atmospheric conditions, we sow our fields, half the way through the yielding process, there would be rain unconditioning the soil, killing the crop. Immediately we would demand subsidy or recompense for the loss from the government. The next year we will not learn from our mistake but continue with our routine for the excuse government gives through subsidy and recompense. After two - three repetition government would allocate a portion in the budget permanently as subsidy for farmers, eventually leaving behind the purpose of agriculture and the produces it would make. 

We don't find alternatives for resources. Water for our agricultural activities merely depends upon river and other direct form of use readily available. We don't condition soil during rain that could collect rain water to fill or refill the ground water table that would help us with our agricultural activities in summer. Citing lack of water we demand drought relief fund from government. So on the whole neither the government, nor the farmers association nor co-operative society nor the agricultural graduates concentrates on bringing back the environmental condition needed for healthy agricultural produce but sit back and relax for the sustenance enabled to the farmers as subsidy or recompense. 

This clearly examples why we can't accomplish any progress despite so many efforts and investments.

"Farmers are facing hard crisis for agricultural land for food production and on the other part aristocrat class & landlords has huge lands found in uncultivated, barren or partly cultivated. To eradicate poverty we need kind attention on it. We have to more caring for our poor farmers so that they can be able to find cultivable agricultural land or farmers can get adequate leased  cultivable agricultural land from aristocrat class & landlords for increasing our agricultural production."

Government and co-operatives can get the barren land hired from the owners and use it agricultural purpose where from the revenue generated from the land a portion would be paid to the land owners as share, a part of the revenue goes to the people who worked in the fields and another portion would go to government. Here everybody involved come together as partners. Landowners parterners in the activity by investing their land, government and co-operatives partners with guidance and equipment support that would ease the toiling of farmers in the field, farmers partners with the skill they have to turn out the land productive. This would bring about the balance in resources ownership and development outcomes alleviating poverty.

Government needs to focus on helping the poor build their skill and not merely on aiding them subsidy or relief fund that would make the world truly productive.

 

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Caroline Mulligan • Advocacy Manager at Soroptimist International from United Kingdom

Dear all,

Thank you for this opportunity to contribute to this discussion, I speak on behalf of Soroptimist International and I wish to address the following question:

What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

NGOs and civil society organisations collect data across countries which is often not available or even recognised in national statistical collection services. Governments must recognise the value of data available from grassroots organisations, as this can bolster or complement official data. Based on experience from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) we cannot afford to fall behind with measuring our progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Governments and civil society, must work collectively as early as possible and with greater urgency, with the indicator framework and associated monitoring systems related with the SDGs, to ensure the achievement of the 2030 Agenda.  Collection at the local level is more nimble than at the national level. Given the pace of change in today's world, issues and problems can change during a five year period, so the national data collected five years ago that is published now may not be totally relevant. An interactive dialogue and multi-stakeholder workshops amongst civil society and governments to jointly develop data collection can contribute to identifying those who are left behind.

In the experience of Soroptimist International (SI), the collection of data at local level related to community needs is vital to ensure those needs are fulfilled, and thus the SDG targets are met. SI works with Prison Reform Trust (PRT) in the UK to inform policy and practice, and prosecution and sentencing guidelines with data analysis; using well researched good practice and thematic briefings for those working with women in penal system. SI conducted both qualitative and quantitative research at a grassroots level which impacted UK government decisions. This project underpins the achievement of several SDGs, including Goal 4, lack of education and training opportunities causing unemployment and poverty are often drivers for offending, and Goal 5, gender-specific offences can lack consideration of the circumstances (including children) and treatment in detention. Systems fail to recognise the role sexual abuse and domestic violence play in women’s offending. SI and PRT project highlights how an NGO can produce data which can directly monitor, demand or drive change for a vulnerable group.  More information can be found in the report, Transforming Lives. Soroptimist International also assists women who provide the primary source of financial support for their families by giving them the resources they need to improve their education, skills and employment prospects. Each year, more than $1.6 million in education grants are awarded to more than 1,200 women, many of whom have overcome enormous obstacles including poverty, domestic violence and/or drug and alcohol abuse. Live Your Dream Awards recipients must be enrolled in, or have been accepted to, a vocational/skills training programme or an undergraduate degree programme, and demonstrate a financial need. The women may use the cash award to offset any costs associated with their efforts to attain higher education, such as books, childcare, tuition and transportation. This grant has increased the standard of living for 82% of these women, and consistent data monitoring ensures that this programme reaches the some of the most vulnerable women in society.

Ensuring robust systems are in place and utilised to collect reliable data and statistics disaggregated by sex and age, will enable us to identify the poorest groups so that targeted policy interventions can reach them, leaving no one behind. Consistent monitoring over time will provide evidence if these groups have made any progress or are still being left behind. One area of importance, is the inclusion of women’s marital status in data, as this can be a primary determinant to the right to inherit property. Until all governments include imperative indicators such as this in their data collection, civil society will continue its role in pressing governments by highlighting the data which they themselves have collected. We must ensure citizen-generated data can contribute to the achievement of the SDGs, including the implementation and ‘follow-up and review’ of the goals.

Thank you.

 

 

 

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Kordzo SEDEGAH • Economics Specialist at UNDP

To eradicate power and leave no one behind requires a conscious effort to dealing with the causes of poverty. Measures should go beyond tokenism to encompass direct support to productivity in agriculture, manufacturing, quality education and health services, and affordable and innovative financial services. 

Most countries in Africa require boost in agriculture productivity and its value chain. There is therefore the need to provide direct support to agriculture in making available to the farmers simple but effective technologies, improved seedlings, and securing of land banks for medium to large scale farmers and granting some tax concessions to these farmers. In addition, governments need to provide agriculture extension services to some groups who would not be able to afford these services. The support should be comprehensive and well-thought through on case-by-case basis, depending the needs and challenges in affected areas and systems. 

Regarding manufacturing support, governments need to ensure that doing business in their various countries are inexpensive, cordial and friendly. It is important to ensure that there is cheap and reliable sources of energy, simple administrative procedures (especially regarding taxes and company registrations). Other complementary conducive environmental factors also need to be in existence, such as good road network, efficient transport system and operative labor policies and laws that provide benefits for investors and labor equally. 

Social services like education and health need to be improved upon to ensure educated and healthy society for increased productivity and creativity. It would not be enough to provide educational and health facilities and human resources to run the facilities, but there is the need to ensure that these facilities are well equipped and manned. It is of no use to have a hospital or classroom with the required testing machines or better learning materials respectively. 

In order to create that environment, which would ensure that transactions are carried out with ease, we need to embrace digital financial services and do well to reduce its accompanied transaction fees to ensure inclusive financial systems. This system would ensure efficiency as well as would carry everybody along, thanks to mobile money and other transaction platforms coming up.

Another issue to be considered is sustainable use of natural resources, and production. Production and extraction of natural environment should lead to the human development of the people.  

In effect, eradicating poverty should be addressed through a more integrated approach than through a single window approach. All the interventions should be explored to leverage on synergies that may exist between sub-sectors of the economy. 

By attaining the Goal 1 of the SDGs, efforts must be made to ensure that all other goals attained. Therefore policy coherence (both horizontal and vertical) is vital in undertaking this agenda. It is therefore to say that all other goals are critical for the attainment of each of the goals of the SDGs.

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Elizabeth Soltis • Social entrepreneur - leadership facilitator at Bridges Global from Canada

I believe the sustainable path to eradicating poverty is from the inside-out...via personal empowerment, effective leadership and collaborative partnership-building with all stakeholders. This includes the so-called 'poor' people being at the decision-making table. Why? Because expanding consciousness is at the heart of all transformation. 

The UN's focus is typically on data collection/research, knowledge-sharing, technical capacity-building, institution-building and policy development. While these are pieces to the puzzle, it is not the whole picture.  This is a limited strategy that discounts the mysterious yet powerful, multi-dimensional realm of people development.  Data without leadership is insufficient.  Policy without inner enrollment is just another control strategy that attempts to force compliance. 

An holistic people-centered approach ought to balance the left-brain with the right-brain - the rational logical side with the inclusive, creative side - masculine action with feminine reflection - reconciling the greed of over-consumption with the scarcity of poverty consciousness that lives within all of us. 

Earth stewardship is the needed frame for the picture of poverty.  For how we connect and relate to self and others is a mirror to how we do so with the environment.   How can we learn from the natural ebb and flow of nature, taking only what we need rather than what we want?  This involves an inner exploration of our attitudes about money and being worthy of support.  We need to dispel the myth that there is not enough, that more is better and that's just the way it is.  The empowerment journey out of poverty involves embodying the principle of sufficiency - being in right relationship with the inner/outer resources of life.  

Voluntary belief and behavior change is often perceived to be too challenging, too ambiguous, too touchy feely and too hard to measure.  But this is where the gold is found -- for the wisdom and the solutions are ultimately within.  Global change needs to be bridged to the local level.  The macro of shifting systems is rooted in the micro of personal growth.

As the Hopi elders taught us, "We are the ones we have been waiting for."

As a bridge-builder, I offer the Bridging Leaders Program, a six-month learning platform that advances SDG results on the ground.  Attached is an overview for consideration, with the above noted threads weaved into the fabric of the program.

Thank you.

Elizabeth Soltis

www.bridgesglobal.net

 

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Oluwaseun Osiyoye • Founder/National Coordinator at Help-Ful-Grace Global Concept from Nigeria

Poverty has been closely connected with education, health and environmental sustainability.  we always for get that human need have been prioritized so greatly work towards the 2030 Agenda, governments need to provide comprehensive approaches across sectos, bringing together relevant ministries to addressing cross-cutting issues in a more coordinated manner. Making Agriculture the lead coordinating ministry. Agriculture remains the largest sources of income and employment for rural families. Not just if we look closely we will see the the basic needs of Man is in Agriculture not education, even Good Health will naturally be when Agriculture takes it place. I seriously recommend support to small farmers and other informal sectors (women most importantly) should be not just part but the lead solution in many countries Private sector should be incentivized to become part of the solution. 
Co-operatives also offer a more value-based/people-centred model that can be important contributors to eradicating poverty. National governments could support the development of cooperatives as a tool for local communities to address their own needs and to help ensure that the wealth generated by economic activity remains in the communities.
If this can be well taken care of believe me people now know that there os need to have good education and good health. So they will naturally get that when the have food on their table, have roof over their head and clothing to wear and have the needed cash to pursue education. 

 

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Akhteruzzaman Sano

 We need to identify a mechanism beyond the current system of practices e.g. what we did during the MDGs, there needs something more robustness in doing it.

1. the policy beneficiaries' reprsentatives shall be empowered to engage meaningfully to ensure significant contribution to create for policy adjustments for the achievement of the SDG1 and related SDGs. the mechanism shall demonstrate the meaningful engagements and make it happen. 

2. There are limitations in current methods as the method beneficiaries are not truly engaged in the method developments, so it would be highly challenging to expect significant output or outcomes measuring poverty reduction approaches. The sentence "leaving on one behind" is a great slogan but to materialize it, need something to be explored to reach to the users levels. There is a need to be developed scorecards to measure the current system - what worked and what did not and develop better options based on the findings. There may have certain levels of diversity based on the geographic issue that shall bring into account.

Scorecard to be tested, monitored the progress for getting most suitable quantitative data to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind.

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Gebremariam Haile

Poverty eradication is not an easy task which requires a lot of work and follow up.  First we need to identify what the people in need requires, Second all stakeholders should be aware of what is required of them as well must full participate towards a great future to all the peoples of the world that is free education, health, and other necessities are accessible.

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Alka BHATIA • Economics Advisor at UNDP

As I scrolled through the summary of comments made to this rich discussion as well additional commentaries on the issue of eradicating poverty in all its forms everywhere, I was wondering at the absence of suggestions on approaches that involve the people that are being left behind(till I came across the comment from Elizabeth Soltis of Bridges). The role of governments in providing access to basic services, a conducive environment and corruption free governance as well as the role of coordinated and collaborative engagement of stakeholders in poverty eradication is vital. But this is known and recognised and yet very little progress seems to be taking place on the ground. We need to go further to elaborate on the people- centred approach.

So what is the missing link here? Are the poorest of the poor, the marginalised and the vulnerable, the possible and passive beneficiaries of government and NGO/CSO largesse, never going to have a say in their development. For far too long the development community has decided what is good for them; their voices are still not heard. So it is time that we direct efforts towards reaching out to them, ensuring they count and make them partners in their development rather than craft top down approaches.

The other major players are the people's representatives, the parliamentarians and the politicians, who are also often missing from the actual work to be done for the marginalised. Their commitment and accountability in poverty eradication is the channel for transmitting the needs of the poor to duty bearers as well as translating the benefits available to these poor communities. 

In Africa and some of the LDCs (at least those I have worked in) traditional leaders and chiefs as well as faith based organisations are very powerful. They are also custodians of a large amount of data and information on those left behind and their buy-in and commitment is critical to inclusive development and poverty eradication. 

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

True, people-centred approach is the key and to be in specific, its individual specific approach that is principled through the constitution and Universal declaration of Human Rights that serves as the solution for all existing problems. 

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Barbara Rogers • from United Kingdom

It is very sad that economic development is being discussed without any reference to people's choices about their children: whether to have children, and when.

   Until women and men are able to have the number of children they want and can support, their poverty is likely to become worse. Their health, and that of their children, is also badly affected by involuntary pregnancies, unsafe childbirth, and illegal abortions.

   There can be no escape from poverty without better health. There can be no health improvement without good contraception. This should be integrated into ALL development programmes. At the moment funding is being threatened, especially by current US Government policy. If it is integrated into all programmes (as the World Bank is beginning to do) it will be much safer. Come on UNDP, lead the way on this.

  

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Joseph Njuguna • Policy Assistant at International Cooperative Alliance Africa from Kenya

Thank you for this platform that will enable the global community to air the views and suggestion in regard to the implementation of SDG 1 and related SDGs

I would like to address the first question on how policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure they are more effective. First, I highly advocate for the theme of inclusiveness. In order to promote the implementation of SDGs and address all the priorities it is apparently of high importance to recognize the groups that are directly affected by a particular issue. For instance, to promote gender equality or youth empowerment through decent jobs etc, it is important to involve the targeted groups or their representatives to air their views and opinions as well as to share the kind of challenges they are facing so that when lobbying actors towards the implementation of these goals, at least a lasting solution can be found to address the challenges of the affected groups.

Civic education is another important factor to consider, as it will raise awareness of people's rights as well as their responsibilities at an individual level in supporting and promoting the implementation of SDGs.

Creating an enabling environment for Civil Society Organization and Local Authorities will give them  an opportunity to fulfill their roles as active, effective and necessary agents of development. CSOs and LAs perceive the SDGs as a valuable framework which they can use for their own work. CSOs are eager to take up their role of a watchdog to hold governments accountable for their commitments while the LAs ensure the integration of development and sustainability issues in the goals as well as linking them jointly to policies and practices at the local level. Hence, LAs and CSOs are in better position in ensuring that the necessary policies are adhered to in implementation of SDGs.

It is imperative to recognize the key actors and drivers of the development goals at all levels. As a representative of Co-operatives, it is of high importance to recognize the efforts that co-operatives are putting in place in advocating for the implementation of SDGs. Examples of some of the work co-operatives are doing to advance the SDGs can be found on the online platform 'Coops for 2030' (www.coopsfor2030.coop)

Co-operatives play a major role in advocating for development agenda as well as ensuring policy coherence. Cooperatives are owned and democratically controlled by members that amount to more than one billion worldwide. They secure the livelihoods of more than 250 million people by providing decent jobs and/or being the main source of income. They are a powerful source in the economy of many countries with combined annual revenues of more than USD 2.5 trillion.  Cooperatives are value based and people centered enterprises that can be major contributors towards eradicating poverty, providing food security and decent employment, ensuring gender equality and women empowerment, protecting the environment as well as fostering the implementation of other SDGs amongst their members and partners. Therefore, it is imperative for co-operatives to be recognized as part of the key drivers of development agenda and promoters of enabling environment for investments through supportive cooperative policies.

Thank you.

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Bhargav Sri Prakash • Founder/CEO & Lead Designer at FriendsLearn from India

Free pre-K education and childcare, which involves immersive learning programs for mothers as well, can fill an opportunity through emphasis of an intervention in the first few years of life. These years are now known to represent majority of cognitive development and exposure/experiences in the first 5 years have been linked to be lifelong achievement. This rapid cognitive development can be supported through free nutrition, education for every child. It can also offer the mothers of the children an immersion opportunity to participate in these crucial years, though a safe peer community of other mothers. It is possible to envision groups of mothers matched through a system, along with children to create a social group for curricular development and extracurricular interactions.

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DJIVOESSOUN Romuald

La pauvreté semble être inter générationnelle dans nos états africains. Des efforts doivent être renforcés pour développer l'économie locale. Mettre en valeur les opportunités endogènes génératrices d'économie, mettre en place des dynamiques locales qui responsabilisent d'avantage les communautés face aux défis environnementaux et que le pouvoir local soit doté des ressources pour soutenir les dynamiques locales qui créées de la richesse, qui réduire les risques environnementaux, qui renforce l’autonomisation de la femme et favorise la mise en valeurs des acquis locaux

DEGBE Jean-Claude Paul • EDUCATION (Bourse, Formation, Orientation) at ONG PADJENA from Benin

Les ODD doivent être centré sur le genre et pilloté par les communautés dans la phase du plan d'application.

Dr. Amb. Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua
Dr.Amb.Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua • President and Founder of Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua Foundation at Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua Foundation from Nigeria

Poverty is a global phenomenal that needs a drastic attention, the implementation of Government policies should address all issues affecting all populace without leaving no one behind. The issue of corruption has gulped into the Developed, Developing and Under-Developed  countries and needs to be tackled.If corruption is addressed,poverty will be reduced.

Olugbenga Odukoya • Executive Director at Peace and Life Enhancement Initiative International from Nigeria

Institutional strengthening and capacity building are important to achieve SDGs.   There is a need for better relationships between government and NGOs in most countries.  Leaving no one behind is a collective responsibility, all the stakholders must be a part of this movement, and for this to happen, there is need for proper understanding, skills and idea. Also, there is a need for parties (Government and NGOs) involve to accept one another and collaborate well enough so that programmes can succeed. 

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Issa CONTEH • Programme Mgmt Specialist at UNDP

Zero poverty is a very ambitions but not unattainable target. I know from personal experience that poverty is dynamic and changes form as people, societies and countries emerge from different situations and stages in development. That should make its eradication an interminable pursuit that would require continuously evolving policies, approaches and interventions. Eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind should be made mutually reinforcing: while eradicating poverty focuses on issue-based targeting of individuals and communities belonging to a predefined socio-economic bracket, the 'leave no one behind' concept is ensuring the drive is dynamic, inclusive and participatory.

Leave no one behind should be used as the guiding principle to drive policies and programmes that allow for people's choices and preferences in how they want to deal with their form of poverty. He who bears or feels it, knows it. In measuring progress towards zero poverty, we would need a complete upgrade on the use of mainstream monitoring, evaluation (M&E) and results-based management (RBM) approaches. We have to adopt more flexible and adaptable methods that look beyond the desired outputs, outcomes and impacts of our interventions. It means we should start looking over and above the real value of what we do to their opportunity and social costs. Many a time, one great intervention has produced one long lasting burden or dis-benefit. While M&E or RBM would identify those, it would not ensure there are robust actions to address them because its primary focus is the desired results. For instances, establishing a poverty eradication commission in a country where the need is obvious and ensuring that the commission is fully functional would be an excellent result. However, it comes at a cost or addition burden to national and local government who would have to assure the long-term survival of that institution. For such a reason, some would naturally die or become dysfunctional. May be our focus should have been to assist government address leakages in revenue collection in order to have a functional Poverty Eradication Commission.

I would say 'Leave no one behind' is quite a golden catch phrase that is much more than it seems. To work toward zero poverty would require policies, programmes and interventions that adopt more flexible, inclusive and participatory approaches  at all stages in the programme or policy cycle as well as performance and measurement systems beyond the desired results.

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New User

OUEDRAOGO RASMANE Directeur du département des politiques environnementales au SP/CNDD-MEEVCC au Burkina Faso.Il faut voir la pauvreté dans toutes ses dimensions et distinguer le milieur urbain et le milieu rural. La pauvreté urbaine est tres grave car c'est la non accessibilité au minimum vital et en mileu urbain elle est peut etre sociale car originellement certains n'ont jamais eu accés aux ressources. Donc Il faut travailler ensemble et croire à la solidarité sans tomber dans le fantasme des parasites.

Quand aux politiques il faut laisser tomber nos égaux et la planification intégrée quand meme pronée n'est pas maitrisée. par exemple quand on parle de cantines scolaire, il faut faire le lien avec la production locale et qui va participer à l'ODD sur l'agriculture durable et la santé. La concertation, la synergie doivent etre de mise.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

I'd very much like to make you aware that there is not poverty only in Africa. In countries that have a higher level of living and a higher GDP per inhabitant, such as countries in our Latin America, eradication of poverty is also a plague. And because we are talking of countries with an average GDP per inhabitant higher than a number of countries in Africa, one must agree with a series of comments that have been made by many of you recently in this rich debate. To wit, that economic development is not enough to take a great number of people away from poverty. I have mentioned at the early stages of our discussion, that there still is around 30 percent of poverty in Argentina. Between 2003 and up to around 2008/2009, Argentina grew at a rate it had not seen in all of her history since her political organization that began around 1853 (after her war of independence from Spain in 1810 and internal struggles between 1820 and 1852). Economics cannot explain how after the best growth period in our history, essential based on the international price of soy bean, we still have about 30 percent of poverty. So, yes, as many of you have said, other considerations must be considered in analysing how best to channel aid. Corruption is indeed a key consideration. If for political reasons the institutions that are responsible for aid at the top of the aid pyramid refrain from belling this huge Cat, are afraid from looking this huge Cat in the eyes, our efforts, the aid, will be inefficiently, most inefficiently used. But, as many of you have pointed out, Corruption is not the only variable in this delicate equation. There is a question of aid for education, food and shelter to be channelled to people that are able to look into some kind of future (I've said this before, yes). So there is this need to "prepare" people to step away from poverty. People who know, say that if you are so poor you are bound to believe that is a station in life from which you have no means of getting away from. Have you never felt that way when in dire straits? So here psychologists and psychiatrists need come into play. As I mentioned when I said this before, this is based on studies on poverty by Doctor Facundo Manes in Argentina, who is now part of a multidisciplinary team working in the poorer pockets within the Argentine province of Buenos Aires. And agriculture being a key mean of income in Africa as it is in Argentina , here Sustainable Development considerations come into play, which I mentioned before -though not in depth- and with which I will not burden you now.    

John-Mary Kauzya • Chief of the Public Administration Capacity Branch in the Division for Public Administration and Development Management, UNDESA at UNDESA from United States

As it was in the context of MDGs , in pursuing the SDGs poverty eradication does not mean and will not mean "leaving no one behind". The dynamics of socio-politico-economic development including ''economic growth" are such that in all countries including the most developed there is the phenomenon of inequality. Therefore, to manage expectations there is need to unbundle the term "leaving no one behind" to move its meaning from slogan to operational guide. Given the current inequality between rich and poor  countries, between rich and poor individuals, what does "leaving no one behind" really mean to a, for example a public servant, or a policy maker? “leaving no one behind” has strong ideological undertones including egalitarianism, equality, equity, involvement, inclusiveness, engagement, collaboration, social security,  and socio-economic welfare. When you commit to effectively implement the 2030 Agenda and achieve its 17 SDGs with their 169 targets leaving no one behind, (the disadvantaged, people living with disabilities, the children, the women, the youth, people living in abject poverty, people displaced by wars and conflict, people in remote areas, generations of the future etc), an ideology that emphasizes inclusiveness, participation, engagement, equality, equity, and most importantly, the delivery of services to all as well as social security and welfare  is assumed and required. The provision of services to achieve the SDGs inevitably brings to the foreground the role of the welfare state. The framers of the 2030 Agenda did not mention the ideological underpinnings that would ensure that Sustainable Development gets achieved leaving no one behind. 

The following can be interpreted as possible components of the meaning of leaving no one behind: 

  1. In the development process identifying and providing support and assistance to those furthest behind first
  2. Identifying and targeting the most vulnerable
  3. Taking a multidimensional including bottom-up approach and giving voice and listening to the vulnerable and furthest behind
  4. Avoiding measuring progress in averages which mask the real poorest vulnerable people left behind
  5. Ensuring everyone especially the most vulnerable has opportunity and shares actions, outcomes (especially the consumption of goods and services) and in the progress made
  6. Involving and engaging everyone especially the poorest and most vulnerable in searching for and creating solutions to the development problems and challenges they face
  7. Starting with the kind of data that can enable public administration to know who the most vulnerable are, where they live and what their needs are (the needs as determined through the situation analysis involving the vulnerable).
  8. Putting in place legal frameworks, policies, strategies and programs which are directly targeting the vulnerable populations
  9. Putting in place measures (safety nets) which ensure that those who make positive steps to get out of poverty do not slip back

  The whole phenomenon of "leaving no one behind" in poverty eradication must address (in addition to getting the poor out of poverty according to the SDG goals and targets), the phenomenon of inequality. Note that countries which have made headway in poverty eradications according to the MDGs performance are facing problems of social instability that are caused by, among other things, inequality.

Régia Estevam Alves • PhD student and researcher in land degradation and desertification. at University Nova de Lisboa from Portugal

Hello everyone!

So the eradication of poverty is not as simple as it seems because it involves the culture of each country. However, we have to think that the eradication of poverty is only possible through political, educational, social and economic changes. I think changes have to start at two key points:

> Eradication of corruption in the political so as to ensure that public money is used fairly and consciously for the people. Create laws that guarantee punishment for political corruption. Guarantee the distribution of income in a more egalitarian way to the society of each country. There is also a need to invest in the eradication of slave labor, often in poor or developing countries. In the century that we are it is impermissible to use something from the source of slave labor or the result of corruption. We have to change the way we think. We have to think of collective solutions, global and not individual.

> Ensure access to quality free education for all children, young people and adults. Changes in the basis of school education must begin. It is impossible for a child to learn anything at school if that child is feeling hungry or thinking about problems of his family, such as domestic violence, drug addiction, unemployment and so on.

 I think that it is possible to guarantee a good future for a poor child if they have access to quality education, health and food. We have to guarantee a home for children who do not have a home and that sleep on the streets. And for children who have a home, but a family who struggle against poverty, it must be ensured that even if these children remain with their families, these children are guaranteed that they will be able to choose fair paths in the future, or to reinforce school education with values ​​and principles that encourage children to escape poverty through education. For this, too, it is necessary to ensure that children in school education reach the university and do not give up. If we invest in education we will have a chance to change the way we think about the future. Our current children will be emotionally strong and conscious adults and with more right choices  in the future.

And here it is also necessary to reflect on how to educate our poor children so that they leave the poverty knowing to make use of the sustainable development. I repeat, we need to invest more in education at all levels. Education is the basis for any change.

Investing in poverty eradication education may seem slow in the long term, but it is guaranteed and Fair and secure investment in quality and this should ensure free access to well prepared food, school materials, health and teachers.

Children are the future of a country, of Planet. However, how to eradicate poverty without leaving anyone behind?

For children, young people, adults and the elderly, regardless of social class, culture, ethnicity, color, religion, etc (girls, boys, women and men):

- Eradicate corruption in politics;

- To eradicate slave job or underpaid job in all every place;

- Invest more in quality education and free to those who can not pay;

- Ensure access to quality and free health for those who can not afford it;

- Ensuring a home for people living on the streets;

- Invest more in food security. We have to ensure the food get to everyone's table. Currently, the model of large-scale agriculture does not guarantee food for all, but rather the enrichment of a few and the degradation of natural resources such as soil, water, forests and wildlife.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

There is, dear colleagues, apart from UN Agencies, governmental agencies and ONGs, another way to channel either work, co-work or funds/food/building material to aid poor communities, and that is Corporate Employee Volunteerism (CEV). In 2015 our Center for Sustainable Development Education at Universidad Austral in Argentina had the academic coordination of the "2015 Report on Corporate Employee Volunteerism in Ibero America". It starts with words from former UN General Secretary Mr. Ban Ki-Moon: "Volunteerism is a source of community strength, resilience, solidarity and social cohesion. It brings positive social change by fostering respect for diversity, equality and the  participation of all. It is among society's most vital assets." It does not only involve helping and working together with the poor, but also with those handicapped, with the old. This kind of aid is a source, as Ban Ki-Moon says, of strength, resilience, solidarity and social cohesion. In Argentina many groups of employees, often together with their bosses, take a long week end to go far from the big cities to communities at the foot of the Andes or in our north-eastern forests  taking food, clothes, medicine and building materials with them and work for three or four full days with the members of the com munity to build a small school, a sanitary post, revamp a small house. They also teach and teach crafts. And they eat there together with the people, and sleep there. Get involved. It is not putting money in an envelope and forgetting about it. It is about CARING. Many corporations join hands with specialised NGOs to carry out these missions. However, to make this kind of work an efficient tool, it is the corporations that do this systematically, with a horizontal knowledge of volunteerism (which must be taught, kept and maintained as a company policy), that are efficient vehicles in the struggle against poverty. In these cases there is a whole lot of members of the firm at all levels, of different professions, that often begin to share their time with privately owned institutions that work in our struggle against poverty. Their working together with the people they help enhances the quality of their aid and creates social bonds that cannot be created otherwise.

Note: the investigation work referred to here was carried out by our team at Universidad Austral's Centre for Sustainable Development Education together with Cooperación Internacional ONG, Iberdrola and Voluntare in 2015. It covered many months of the year 2015.

  

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Isselmou Ould Mohamed Abderrahmane Ould Hanefi • President at Agissons contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie (ACFM)

 

L'initiative de cet échange autour de la faim dans le monde est extremement louable  et pour enrichir son contenu je vous propose les modestes activités que j' ai réalisé en Mauritanie par le double lancement d' une alliance contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie et le lancement d' une Banque alimentaire, avec deux fichiers PPT sur les deux projets

Fiche technique de L' ACFM

L’alliance nationale contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie à vu le jour dans une conjoncture particulièrement difficile pour le Pays tant au niveau alimentaire, nutritionnel que  social. Déjà, la Déclaration d'engagement en matière de lutte contre la faim et la malnutrition, adoptée en décembre 2009 par les ministres et parlementaires mauritaniens lors d'une session de plaidoyer sur la nutrition, de même que la proposition de création formelle d'un Conseil national de la nutrition, ont marqué une nouvelle étape qui venait consolider  l'initiative REACH (« Programme de l’UNICEF visant à éliminer la faim et la malnutrition parmi les enfants ») un effort qui contribue grandement  à la réalisation des objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD) dont le but est de réduire de moitié la proportion d'enfants souffrant d'insuffisance pondérale d'ici 2015.

Ce climat de conscience très élevé  au niveau des élus, des partenaires au développement et du gouvernement justifie et consolide pleinement le cadre dans lequel travaille l’ACFM. L’Alliance Nationale contre la faim et la Malnutrition en Mauritanie est un outil d’avenir qui permettra non seulement de lutter contre la faim et la malnutrition mais, de lutter aussi contre les inégalités et toutes les formes d extrémismes au niveau de la société mauritanienne. C’est dans ce sens, que des réseaux d’organisation de la société civile, des fédérations agricoles, des leadeurs d’opinions et des imams  se sont rencontrés  jeudi 14 juillet 2011, sur initiative et  invitation de l’ONG SOS Abbere dans ses locaux à  Dar-Naim.

Dans le cadre d’une assemblée constituante pour la mise en place  d’une alliance nationale contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie-ACFM .Elle a été reconnu officiellement en vertu du récépissé N° 0362/2011/MID. Le Lancement officiel  des activités de l'ACFM a été donné le jeudi 10 novembre 2011.

Principales activités de l’alliance nationale:

  • Dialogue sur les politiques ;
  •  Programmes techniques et de développement ;
  • Stratégies de promotion et soutien.

 Bilan non exhaustive des activités réalisées en une année d’existence:

Toutes ces activités ont été menées sur les fonds propres de l’ ACFM

  • Célébration de la journée Mondiale de l’alimentation le 16 octobre 2011 ;
  • Célébration à Kiffa de la journée de l’alimentation le 16  octobre 2012 ;
  • Contribution à la création  d’un réseau pour soutenir les programmes de vaccinations dans le e Pays;
  • Contribution à hauteur de 30% dans l’approvisionnement du marché de Nouakchott  en légumes et produits maraichers réalisés par les coopératives et ONGs membres de l’ACFM;
  • Très grand travail de plaidoyer et de sensibilisation tant au niveau des décideurs, des partenaires que de la société mauritanienne dans son ensemble ;
  • Envoie d’une  importante mission de sensibilisation et d’information de deux semaines vers les Wilayas des deux Hodhs l’Assaba et l’Adrar du 25-08 janvier 2012.

 

 

 

Statuts des acquis par L’Alliance Nationale  Contre la Faim et la Malnutrition en Mauritanie-ACFM :

  • Elle est Membre active du Forum de la coordination des urgences ;
  • Elle est Membre de la cellule de coordination de l’élevage ;
  • Elle est membre du cluster de la sécurité alimentaire ;
  • Elle a représenté la Mauritanie au lancement de l’alliance régionale des Pays arabes contre la faim et la malnutrition qui s’est déroulé du 14-15 octobre 2012 à Amman. Le rapport de mission préparer au retour de cette mission sera joint avec cette note d’information ;
  • Elle est Membre  active  du réseau international des alliances contre la faim et la malnutrition dans le monde, dirigé par l’Alliance Internationale de lutte contre la Faim et la Malnutrition basée à Rome Italie.

Les attentes de l’ACFM par rapport au Commissariat à la sécurité alimentaire (CSA) dans le cadre de l organisation de l atelier de lancement de la banque alimentaire de Mauritanie.

Parrainage de l’Atelier :

·Ouverture officielle des travaux de l’atelier par le Commissaire ;

·L’intervention du  commissariat auprès des autres membres du gouvernement invités à cet événement : (Le MAED, Ministère des affaires sociales de l’enfance et de la famille, le commissariat aux droit de l’homme à l’Action Humanitaire et en relation avec la Société Civile) ;

·Le commissariat choisira la nature de l’appui et le niveau de l’engagement logistique et ou financier auprès de l’ACFM pour la bonne réussite de cet atelier.

Une courte définition de la banque alimentaireLes « banques alimentaires par définition collectent, gèrent et partagent des denrées alimentaires pour aider l'homme à manger à sa faim. Leur action se fonde sur la gratuité, le don, le partage, et lebénévolat ». Cela se fait dans le cadre de la collecte d’aliments, de préférence non périssables, et leur mise à disposition gratuite aux plus nécessiteux. Ce processus se passe par l’intermédiaire d’accords de partenariat entre structures techniques concernées ou impliquées. Dont la finalité est de répondre à l’urgence sociale par l’aide alimentaire.

Le concours de la société civile, du secteur privé et du gouvernement permet de réunir des personnalités influentes autour des mêmes convictions, qui définiront ensemble le dispositif pouvant conduire à la mise en place d’une banque alimentaire. L’engagement de chacun de ses trois acteurs est déterminant afin de tirer parti de leurs ressources collectives. Il existe aujourd’hui plus de 178 banques alimentaires reparties dans 33 Pays dans le monde. La banque alimentaire d’Egypte à titre d’exemple à déjà presque finalisée un projet de convention de partenariat avec la banque alimentaire de Mauritanie. Cette convention sera signée entre les deux structures en marge  des travaux de l atelier de lancement de la banque alimentaire de Mauritanie prévu le 21-22 janvier 2013. Moez El shohdi administrateur délégué  au conseil d’administration de la banque alimentaire d’Egypte avait signé dernièrement un partenariat  avec le réseau mondial des banques alimentaires.L’ objectif de cet accord est d’investir Mr Moez El shohdi de la mission de supervision des banques alimentaires nouvellement créées dans la région du monde Arabe. Dans le programme de l’atelier de lancement de notre banque alimentaire Mr Shohdi fera trois présentations qui prendront à peu prés les 3/4 de la 2éme journée. Madame Marie Christine Laporte coordinatrice de l’alliance internationale contre la faim et la malnutrition dont le siège est basé à Rome (Italie) sera présente également à l’événement:

 C’est conformément à l’ une des recommandations de l’ alliance régionale des Pays arabes  contre la faim et la malnutrition tenue à Amman Jordanie 14-15 octobre 2012. Et, à laquelle la Mauritanie était représentée par Mr Isselmou Ould Mohamed Abderrahmane que les quelques Pays Arabes qui ne disposent pas encore de banque alimentaires le soient dans les plus brefs délais. La réalisation de cet objectif a été confiée aux alliances présentes des Pays concernés et la Mauritanie en fait partie. Pour rappel et éclaircissement la représentation des Pays Arabes au lancement de l’alliance régionale des Pays Arabes contre la faim et la malnutrition. Etait assurée par les alliances nationales sur invitation de la FAO, de l’alliance jordanienne contre la faim et la malnutrition et du gouvernement du Royaume Hachémite   A noter que le but de la banque alimentaire est d’appuyer les  efforts de l’alliance contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie-ACFM dont le but est de compléter les efforts de l’état dans la lutte contre la faim et la malnutrition.

 

 

Les sources d’approvisionnements et expériences:

Le grand public organise chaque année en décembre une collecte nationale de denrées non périssables est organisée auprès du public dans les magasins de grande distribution. Les bénévoles des Banques Alimentaires distribuent à l’entrée du magasin des imprimés expliquant quels produits doivent être achetés en priorité. Les clients remettent ensuite à la sortie les denrées ainsi achetées, qui seront ensuite stockées. Les produits demandés sont principalement : (pâtes, riz), café, huile, thon, sardines, pâté en conserve mais aussi des aliments pour nourrissons (petits pots),

Les industries agroalimentaires •  Les industries agroalimentaires : la FFBA a engagé des partenariats avec Bonduelle, Danone, Kraft, Lindt, Nestlé, Yoplait (4). Aux États-Unis, une réforme fiscale de 1976 favorise la donation par les entreprises de leurs produits aux banques alimentaires. Depuis, le fonctionnement et l’idée même des banques alimentaires sont bien acceptés par les industriels.

•  La grande distribution : des accords semblables ont été signés afin de collecter dans les grandes et moyennes surfaces des produits non périssables souvent invendables (non commercialisables car peu présentables par exemple) ainsi que des produits périssables proches de leur date limite de consommation ou excédentaires (dans ce dernier cas, il s'agit de la "ramasse" quotidienne). Cela s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une politique plus générale de lutte contre le gaspillage.

•  Les pouvoirs publics : Les pouvoirs publics, principalement par l’ouverture de stocks agricoles. Le gouvernement américain fournit gratuitement ou pour un prix dérisoire des surplus  agricoles aux banques alimentaires. La Communauté économique européenne a ouvert, en 1987 suite à la demande de Coluche, les surplus de la Politique agricole commune  aux associations fournissant l’aide alimentaire (les surplus coûtaient en effet plus cher à stocker qu’à distribuer gratuitement aux pauvres !). En France, ces surplus vont, outre à la  Banque alimentaire, aux Restos du Cœur, à la Croix-Rouge et au Secours populaire. Les banques alimentaires contribuent ainsi utilement à la résorption des excédents de  production agricole en en faisant bénéficier les plus démunis (principales denrées visées : lait, fruits, légumes, céréales).

Conclusion : La pauvreté touche encore 42% des 2.975 millions de mauritaniens en 2008 (contre 46,7% en 2004). Le plus important,  de toutes façons est que  notre Pays suivra un jour ou l’autre les modèles de réussite dans ce domaine déjà expérimentés dans les autres Pays. Au  regard des statistiques, bien des poches de pauvretés existent encore et mêmes persistent chez nous. De ce fait, la complémentarité évidente de la banque alimentaire avec la mission sociale  et traditionnelle de l’Etat  nous  offre une opportunité à ne pas manquée. Aussi, il est a rappelé que le commissariat à la sécurité alimentaire est l’ancrage institutionnelle de l’alliance contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie-ACFM. C'est-à-dire son  partenaire principal sur le plan national dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre de sa mission d’intérêt  général et de celle de la banque alimentaire en particulier.

Contact Isselmou Ould Hanefi  Cel +22246413262 website www.sosabbere.asso.st email: tendawally@gmail.com

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CRISTINA DIEZ SAGUILLO

Many interesting ideas have been shared in this discussion, as many, we could say, as people contributing. I would like to reflect in this post about how do we (maybe experts, but with no direct experience of extreme poverty) talk about poverty. How do we define poverty? How do we measure poverty? What solutions we propose?

Do we, experts, but with no direct experience of poverty, would talk in the same way if we were men talking about gender issues in an e-discussion where no single women contributed? Would the participation of women in the discussion shape the conversation in a different way? Is there interest in such participation?

If we were white people with expertise about racism, would we talk in the same way in a discussion where not a single person of color is present? Would the participation of people with African descent, for example, shape the conversation in a different way? Will this allow white people to see things from a different perspective? In which voice is there a stronger legitimacy? Is it worth to create the conditions for such participation?

In a very famous speech in 2005 Mandela compared poverty with slavery and apartheid: "Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings."

People living in extreme poverty often describe their experience of poverty with feelings that could be very similar to the ones felt by slaves and people living under the apartheid.

The worst thing about living in extreme poverty is the contempt, that they treat you like you are worthless, that they look at you with disgust and fear and that they even treat you like an enemy. We and our children experience this every day, and it hurts us, humiliates us and makes us live in fear and shame.

The fight against slavery and apartheid was first and foremost fought from the inside, many slaves and people under apartheid rebelled and fought to change their situation and this fight was recognized and supported by others.

With poverty the story is very different, most of the narrative depict people in poverty at the receiving end of the efforts and very rarely they are considered actors, much less the most important stakeholders in this fight. With this narrative we don’t only ignore the efforts that people in poverty make to live in dignity, to improve their communities, to build peace in the midst of insecurity, uncertainty and scarcity, but we deny their existence. With this narrative we reduce people in poverty to victims.

I would like to end this post with a small contribution towards changing this narrative.

ATD Fourth World is carrying out a pilot project in partnership with the University of Oxford to develop indicators of multi-dimensional poverty. The project hinges on participatory research that combines the perspectives of key stakeholders and prioritizes the views of people with direct experience of material and social deprivation.

The partnership stems from a shared understanding of the inadequacies of existing ways of thinking about and measuring poverty, and the conviction that these can be addressed by conducting rigorous scientific research alongside people who have direct experience of poverty and who will be co-creators of new knowledge.

The research seeks to refine the understanding and measurement of poverty by engaging with people with direct experience, practitioners and academics to contribute to more sensitive policy design at national and international level and thereby to greater reductions in poverty.

For more information about this project: http://www.atd-fourthworld.org/international-advocacy/measuring-poverty/

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Isselmou Ould Mohamed Abderrahmane Ould Hanefi • President at Agissons contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie (ACFM)

Mme CRISTINA DIEZ SAGUILLO,

J' ai beaucoup apprécié votre post tant sur le plan de la forme que du fond, sauf que je n' aurais le temps et surtout l' inspiration d' y répondre correctement pour les  trois raisons suivantes:

1/ pour des raisons évidentes de pragmatisme, d' objectivité et de réalisme nous ne pouvons discuter que du sujet proprement dit, c' est à dire la pauvreté et ses incidences sur l' humanité en général et sur nos pays en particulier, c' est bien la raison de ce topic.

2/ Je souhaiterais que le débat ne se transforme en une discussion académique ou philosophique qui nous dévie du sujet et nous éloignent de nos préoccupations quotidiennes

3/ J' aimerais qu'ont se focalise sur nos expériences en matiére de lutte contre la pauvreté   et faire des propositions et/ou recommandations à meme de nous aider dans la réussite de cette mission. Cordialement  Madame

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

M. Ould Hanefi, on imagine que la lutte contre la faim en Mauritanie doit être extrêmement difficile, pleine d'obstacles et je vous souhaite le plus grand succès dans votre tâche. J'ai tout lu avec le plus grand intérêt. Alors je vois de l'information de 2012 surtout. Est-ce-que vous avez des chiffres de 2016 où 2017 pour nous donner tous une idée de comment se déroule aujourd'hui cette lutte contre la faim chez vous? Si possible, on serai tous très obligés. Surtout ceux qui sommes loin de l'Afrique.  

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Isselmou Ould Mohamed Abderrahmane Ould Hanefi • President at Agissons contre la faim et la malnutrition en Mauritanie (ACFM)

Mauricio López Dardaine,

Je pense que les données  sur le profil de pauvreté en Mauritanie sont  disponibles et beaucoup 'autres intervenants ont mis en ligne toute une gamme variée d' informations sur le sujet je pense notammant au systéme des nations unies, aux ONGs internationales et nationales. Mais à mon avis les données statisques sont une chose et la réalité des gens sur le terrain est une autre.  La Mauritanie est l' un des rares Pays au monde ou toute la vie est centralisée au niveau de la capitale economique et politique. C' est un Pays qui n' a jamias connu de reformes economiques profondes, ce qui fait que toute la population active de l interieur du Pays afflue vers la capitale laissant un vide social, economique et culturel derriere eux. Et déséquilibre la vie dans les grandes agglomerations du Pays favorisant la pauvreté, l'anarchie et l' insecurité au détriment du developpement socioeconomique du Pays.  Malgré nos enormes richesses, nous comptons aujourd'hui parmi les Pays les plus pauvre au monde et nous vivons à ce jour en grande partie  grace  à l' aide exterieur. 

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Bilel Aboudi

I think that we cannot eradicate poverty as long as it is "labeled" according to economic standards. In other words, as long as a "poor" individual is described so in case he/she has less than 1 dollar per day, we would still have segregation between wealthy populations and poor populations.

However, as mainly presented in previous comments, I think that if poverty just can be re-labeled in its human/social perspective, there would be a high chance to be gradually eradicated. The description of poor individual could be " An unlucky man/woman who was born in a place where he/she was deprived the access to basic needs for a decent life that any human has the right to deserve on planet earth once born and had the right for life". Do you know that the only species that have to pay for their food on this planet are the Human species? Do you know that the only species that have to pay to save their own children from killing diseases are the Human species?  Who accepted that food, medicine, and shelter are no longer public goods? Who accepted that generic drugs can only be made by governments in only specific cases (TRIPS agreement at WTO)? Why only the news bring us images of people dying from hunger, but no corporate would send any excess of their food production to them? Why there is no day in the UN system called «the global collect day against poverty" where each UN worker/officer and people all over the globe, volunteer for one day work from their salary to the poor? There is a systematic hinder to eradicate poverty because most of basic needs have become private goods and no longer public goods. Why the UN system do not re-activate the UNCTAD original role as once it was created to track equilibrium between international trade and development needs , by which new infrastructure could decrease the risks for a poor life? The UNCTAD has the mandate to track corporations/Multinationals around the globe and intervene in excess of their pricing and monopolistic strategies.  It could be very utopist to change the whole system, but I think it can be triggered by small and precise actions, especially using IT:  Make Facebook pay a penny for each click, make free access to online scientific research and make patents accessible to developing countries, induce new models of development that are based on minimum loans and local resources (i.e. If someone couldn’t have access to modern medicine, at least let’s improve the traditional one) . Creativity and the free flow/exchange of knowledge have helped humanity to survive. If we boost both , I think we would have a good start. In my opinion, the solution to the issue of poverty would be in the next 20 years, it is when the native digital generation will be in decision positions either at UN or else, where their cognitive references would be totally different from those of a generation that was born in a non digital world.      

Peter Kimbondo Mangala
Peter Kimbondo Mangala • from Congo - Kinshasa

Sur le plan local, éliminer la pauvreté n’est pas aussi facile, ni difficile d’ailleurs!

Heureux de rejoindre le débat. "Eliminer la pauvreté en ne laissant personne derrière" appelle à recentrer notre réflexion ainsi que nos actions  sur 3 points essentielles, à mon humble avis:

  1. La pauvreté en soi; 
  2. L'environnement de la pauvreté;
  3. Les enjeux de lutte contre la pauvreté!

Les ODD ainsi que les littératures abondantes sur ce sujet n'appellent plus de débats mais plutôt des actions courageuses, contraignantes et concrètes sur le plan tant international (Responsabilité internationale) et local (responsabilité nationale) à la fois.  

1. La pauvreté en soi:

De mon humble avis, La pauvreté est un état de carence des sources et des ressources nécessaires ou suffisantes pour répondre aux besoins fondamentaux de la vie de manière confortable et durable (Logement décent, nourriture, santé, éducation, développement,…).

Cause :

Défaut ou insuffisance des sources (le savoir technique) ressources (les moyens matériels ou financiers) nécessaires par habitant, sinon, non accès à ces sources et ressources de manière durable et utiles.

2. L’environnement de la pauvreté

L’environnement de la pauvreté est l’ensemble de composantes qui l’alimentent et  maintiennent son état de manière pérenne !

Causes internes

  • Une politique nationale ou locale inappropriée, non participative et moins axée sur le service à la personne (dans sa diversité), sur son développement social et économique, sur son environnemental suivant les objectifs de Développement Durable  retenus par les Nations Unies ; 
  • L’absence d’une démocratie véritable, la mauvaise gouvernance, la corruption à tous les niveaux, l’injustice sociale et l’impunité ;
  • La redistribution inadéquate voire nulle des revenues nationales à toutes les couches des populations, par des actions d’intérêt public, communautaire…
  • Le manque de soutien, d’encadrement, de promotion de l’entreprenariat et de la créativité locale ;
  • Le système d’éducation inadéquat ;
  • L’absence des débats et de mise en chantier des idées novatrices sur le plan local
  • L’absence d’une gestion conséquente et responsable des programmes et de l’Aide au Développement
  • L’absence de politique sur les populations, sur les ressources disponibles, renouvelables et non renouvelables,...

Causes externes :

  • La coopération internationale souvent sur fond de la dépendance ;
  • Le soutien occulte ou passif des dirigeants politiques non respectueux de la démocratie, des droits humains, corrompus et prédateurs de leurs propres peuples ; (Pas de sanctions ciblés, clairs et exemplaires).
  • Difficulté d’accès direct aux marchés internationaux par les pays pourvoyeurs de matières premières.

    3. Les enjeux de lutte contre la pauvreté

Sur le plan local, éliminer la pauvreté n’est pas aussi facile, ni difficile d’ailleurs!

Ça ne demande que du courage et de l’abnégation. ‘est en agissant sur les plans locaux que le résultat serra global.

C’est une question de volonté, de responsabilité, de justice, du respect et de protection de la vie et de l’écosystème, de charité, d’humanité, de la solidarité et, enfin, d’organisation!

Chaque village, ville ou pays a ses propres réalités. Il faut chercher les causes fondamentales de la pauvreté d’une catégorie des populations, ses facteurs  et, de causes à effet, agir par rapport à chaque situation mais de manière à la fois vertical et horizontal pour un impact durable et d’envergure. Le levier doit être un programme local touchant à la fois chacun des objectifs du développement durable, car tous ces objectifs pointent vers la personne clé.

Eliminer la pauvreté sans laisser personne derrière revient à construire et mettre en œuvre un programme national (local) global axé sur le service à la personne clé et à l’environnement.

La personne clé c’est celle jugée en état de pauvreté. Mais aussi la communauté, le village, une ville cible.

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

 "In my opinion, the solution to the issue of poverty would be in the next 20 years, it is when the native digital generation will be in decision positions either at UN or else, where their cognitive references would be totally different from those of a generation that was born in a non-digital world."     

The problem here is not about the generation but about the system itself. The system always demands examples and precedences to accept or recognise a change, any suggestion be it from the generation of digital age or the ones from non-digital generation, it needs to be complex, complicated and hi-fi with lots of mathematical work, data analysis, jargons and most importantly it must be well within the framework and the approach we have officiated. If the suggestion made eases out the working environment or the living of the populace, if the suggestion is different from the routine methodologies and perspectives of the world, that will never be accepted. Why do we expect the social research to be scientific? When calculation enters the social paradigm, it illusions the world lifting it from its original reality. The World by its nature is heterogeneous, we have a diverse array of populace (skills, expertise, interest and living pattern and approach), resources and sources to resources, to bring the entire variance under our computation we take up a factor that is in between the entire array of spread and formulate a general solution on it. This absolutely resolves the problems of populace who fit in the selected frequency, the populace above the selected frequency are put to compromises (left out) and the populace below are put to pressures (deprived), eventually these both category of populace constituting to 'poverty' - they lack a living that absolutely suits their individuality or originality. 

Instead, if we could include the world for the content they have, looking into the conviction they make in progressing the world with the content and resource they design and the correspondence it makes with the fundamental principles, change will be real and purposeful. With time and evolution, world and living must be made easy, standard or quality of a system doesn't depend on the degree of complexity or hardship of the system but it rests in the degree of it being absolute and holistic.

"Why there is no day in the UN system called «the global collect day against poverty" where each UN worker/officer and people all over the globe, volunteer for one day work from their salary to the poor?"

UN can guide the government of all nations in facilitating their citizens with its constitution that assures opportunities for progression to everyone. Poverty can be eradicated only when every individual in the global upgraded to lead a productive life. When we approach poverty eradication through donation or charity, we are invisibly creating problems that pulls back the developmental quotient of the world. 

I very frequently come across this comment relating to "utopia", I would really like to know from the participants here as a factor of realisation,

what looks utopia -

(i) is it the routine that we follow that is completely deviant from what is manifested to the world through fundamental papers, claiming to be holistic, inclusive and problem free where actually it has exclusion, problems. 

or

(ii) is it a reform that sets the world to what is maifested through fundamental papers setting it to be holistic, inclusive and problem free in real?

Than sidelining that a effortless, problem free and light hearted world to be an utopian dream, when we could put us all through this reality check for a minute, the reformation that we would make will set our activities back to reality and purpose.

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Thanks to Mr.Pedro Conceicao and other organisers for extending the dates.Looking at 1.The Data,the statistical part of who are behind,why they are behind and where are they.2.How good are they connected to the mainstream of society.3.What are their livilihood systems.Are they connected to main stream production requirements if they are from villages,or from agriculture business.4.Are their works,say artists,computer professionals in cities for example,are they threatened by way of new technologies.5.Can we bring them to main stream and get them modest earning systems by giving minimal education,on site off-site etc.6.What systems,such as modest economical transport,modest communication,little supportive housing can stream line their earnings and end their poverty and bring them back to standard living systems.

This data helps in societies and governments to organize different systems for a weaker group.

B.There will be another group who cannot organize them selves and go on migrating such group needs to be given an emphasis on resttlement issues.

C.The other group that has no capacity,either to do any thing on their own or move to places for finding group.This is the weakest group,and needs continuous monitoring.

Evolving the system of reaching to these people by use of digital technology for banking/loans  and for providing food subsidies,and housing systems and education is possible.Putting a Social security number and connecting all such to several servers is most important.House to house surveys and using the finger prints or the eye as a index is what is now days in practice in all countries.

How best to organize the NGO to help such of the groups and measure the benefits on quarterly basis is by using the modern Information technology.

A.Use of ICT,Drones for small farmer agriculture is evolving better results as per reports.

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Shailendra Kumar Jaiswal • from India

“Leaving no one behind” is a commitment of the United Nations that requires an unprecedented pledge in the spirit of Good Will and real cooperation. These are values that inspired the United Nations’ charter, and now, at this defining moment in human history, they must become the foundation of our actions moving forward.

I represent International Human Rights Protector's Group , an NGO from India.We find that lack of education in rural areas and corruption among political class , Government officers is the main cause that Poverty is not being eradicated .And due to no knowledge the poor , remain poor and dependant on others.

All Government project should be target oriented and corruption free. All beneficiary should get money or education , tecnical training at source(near their villages).Raods, and Electronics network, banking facilities should be available to the remotest villages and individuals.

Citizen Forum help desk to be made in every village to help the people educate themselves and enjoy the benefits of Government related projects.

It is as equally important to provide essential social services , by eminent abled personalities to promote the Government projects , as it is to restore hope, faith and the urge for a higher consciousness towards a sensible , matured , curious ,disciplined , altruistic and ecumenical society.

Shailendra Jaiswal

Ihrpg India

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Jimmy Van de Putte

Unfortunately I have limited time to participate due to a master thesis needing to be writen.

However, having to be very poor when I was young, I feel obliged to leave at least one comment that distilates my thoughts of what was missing for me to get me out of poverty by the context (society) where I was living in.

It`s nobel and needed that the world in a whole progresses towards the erredication of poverty. The lessons learned could come from studies from universities, but I want to share my beliefs, from a different point of view. So here goes....

Lack of perspective and possibility... being poor means quite often that you dont think you can become anything (or even being anything)... the main goal of somebody poor is trying not to be poor but with the vision constructen by his or her `habitat`. Breaking this and providing a different prospective could help poor to believe that they could become a doctor, engineer, or skilled labourer that can provide for him/her and the family.

Any gouvernement or UN program should focus on this first, getting poor people believe in their possibilities...

And for the programs still running, most help I got, and that wasn`t a lot, was way too little and very frustrating. Sometimes it`s better to focus better help to a smaller group and doing it well, that to dispers aid in a way it doesn`t change anything fundamental, leaving the poor, well, poor... 

I` want to apoLogize for the very limited contribution, hopefully, I can do better next time....

But I will be following this ...

greetings,

 

Jimmy

Karol Arámbula • National Operations Coordinator at MY World Mexico from Mexico

Responses on behalf of MY World Mexico, a network of 35 organizations, movements and 120 volunteers working at a local, national and international levels for the Implementation, monitoring, financing and socialization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Mexico. The project started in Jalisco, Mexico collecting over 400,000 MY World ballots and reforming the State Development Plan in alignment with the SDGs. Since 2016, MY World Mexico has operated throughout Mexico, collecting over 30,000 MY World 2030 surveys and impacting in Mexico's National Voluntary Review during the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, the ECOSOC Youth Forum and the Commission for Social Development. 

a.   Legislative efforts must be carried out in the short, medium and long term so that there is a broad, fair and aligned budget allocation to achieve the SDGs. Such allocation is not far removed from existing national budgetary priorities. However, this allocation must be accompanied by mechanisms of transparency, accountability and citizen participation that allow the adequate location of the resources directed to the scope of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Legislative work should not be framed at the federal level, but should be expanded to the state and municipal levels, where all levels of the country contribute to the successful achievement of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development.

b.   Political conciliation is indispensable for the realization of a National Development Plan fully aligned with the SDGs monitoring mechanisms. A special emphasis should be placed on the role and leadership of state and municipal governments, which in many cases do not have the technical or planning capacity to comply with national instruments.

c.   Creation of mechanisms that commit public officials to compliance with the implementation, monitoring, review, financing and dissemination of the SDGs.

d.   Coordination and technical knowledge about the roles and responsibilities in the SDGs processes without prior and clear knowledge of both processes, it will be difficult to achieve efficient and effective coordination. This includes a broad, plural, democratic and ambitious discussion of the SDGs, their preamble, their goals and indicators.

 

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Esther Njomo Omam

Eradicating poverty first of all calls for inclusive governance and specifically addressing the issues of gender inequalities. It also means getting the women in the most remote areas/communities participate in the  national plan of action to render services more needs based and demand driven.

ALEKSANDRS • Menedzeris at LATVIJAS VEGA, sia from Latvia

Labrit/ Morning, dear Gentleman  PEDRO CONCEIČĀO & Co.

Thank You, dear, for chance to speak openly with the GOOD WILL PEOPLE of the our time, the time of the JESUS CHRIST.

Really, how is ridiculous theme: " ERADICATING POVERTY and LEAVING no ONE BEHIND " ! How much time the human history tried to solve this topic and  again ..." У РАЗБИТОГО КОРЫТА ".

Here is only personal view, dears: for the triumph this theme now, at the moment, I think, the NU community has unique moment.

So, view: the country SYRIA land today is one of horror and painful land in our world. In order to localize and treat the day & night of the bleeding wound, I am suggesting NOW  the idea to the UN community to develop in SYRIA a " BUFFER ZONE ", where the nearest 50 years will be to live the UN " BLUE HELMETS ". Of the 2 " BUFFER ZONE " sides will the variety 2 antagonistic political forces. On one side will be Christians, on the second - the other religions.

Ultimately, We are teaching good examples of the 20th century: Germany and Korea,....

Human large blood leakage in SYRIA and real hatred and revenge actions will not give today to approve any peace innovation in the region.

Today We do NOT SIN to look at 2,000 years ago. The Savior`s JESUS CHRIST real presence among us directly from Syria came to the Jesus many people to seek treatment and learn. And the Syrian people`s memory is living and today, and Christian Russia will always be in favor of the assistants " Sisters and Brothers in Christ " in Syria !

You see, the real peacetime on the long - suffering land of Syria will helps to the UN " good will " forces give to the people in two diaspora the opportunities to build real " ERADICATING POVERTY and LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND ".

Thanks.

CHRIST RESURRECTED !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

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Naomi Tobita

Hello, thank you Pedro for your very effective facilitation for us late-comers to the discussion, like me. Over all, I agree with the points that have been summarized on eradicating poverty and leaving no one behind. I may add a point that might contribute to the e-discussion here, with a disclaimer: I understand tackling with it would be extremely difficult. It could be called as “the Mother of All the Wars,” i.e. land ownership.

MPI has an entry of “Asset” in this regard, but it seems to me the connection between MPI’s asset and environment, and hence poverty mapping and sustainability, is not so clear. I must emphasize it is definitely not fair for the creators of MPI to bring up the point as the discipline of economics is  not yet strong about the issue. (Database Econ-lit shows mainly the papers of at least 10 year old, and the studied area is concentrated in South Asia and a bit of Africa.) Having said that, as a member of civil society organization for environmental concerns in Megalopolis Tokyo, I have a feeling poverty reduction in sustainable environment is closely linked with land tenure. Disaggregating poverty mapping would be more persuasive when we can incorporate the aspect of land proprietorship one way or another.

Japanese system has fairly-well established social registration system, legal arrangement for asset ownership, taxation (and hence related data), and civil society engagement with generous public sector backing in terms of technical and financial aspects. Moreover, after the World War II, democracy was clearly codified in the Constitution, and the previously-divine Emperor became a mere mortal. These days, his now 84 years’ old son cannot quit his job unless the national Diet let him have a happy retirement. That might be an evidence of transparency in governance ;) Regarding education, Japan established nearly 100% elementary school graduation rate (for whomever) long before the World War II. I would say almost all the points the e-discussion raised in the first 2 weeks were realized policy-wise in Japan. 72 years later, our society is not poverty-free, nor paradise of biodiversity. Our community is still struggling to have it “just right.” Yet, the take-away from Japanese experience is our accumulated experience for struggle to search for the equilibrium to the cause. The clear definition for the ownership of land is practically the foundation of the process.

After the World War II, Japanese government executed the order of General Headquarters of Allied Forces (aka American government) for emancipation of farming lands: they confiscated the land from large landlords and redistributed them to landlords and sharecroppers equally. At that time, the policy solved the rural poverty problem, and indeed “no-one left behind” including the formerly-rich landlords. Now, the players in Megalopolis Tokyo for sustainable development are title holders of land, recently moved urban residents who recognize the DRR / educational / mental-health functions of greenery in neighborhood, pin-striped developers who love to cash-in land transactions in and around the capital, academic (or otherwise) environmentalists, and local governmental officers whose job is to coordinate the matters. For welfare enhancement of local agricultural community in Megalopolis with such a diverse stake-holders, visible access and understanding of the data concerning the land rights is the starting point of anything.     

Somebody could say, hearing anecdotes from Japan, “Let’s ignore the transparency and democracy and make Gini coefficient 1 for a faster result.” Not so quick. We, the members of a civil society for urban environment, often jokingly (and cynically) say “You know that the grandpa of Mr. X over there entitled the land 70 years ago, and he and his family established beautiful agri-business and forest as they think their property dear and take care of well. Now, look Mr. Y, a descendant of a former big landlord. His family doesn’t care their ancestral land. Their place is now rows of detached houses owned by office workers of Tokyo coming from elsewhere. Mr. Y clan is reduced to a small detached house just like us!” In the end, a person who thinks his/her property important appropriately takes care of it by toiling on it for a long period, and achieving a decent living for generations. Probably that’s the goal we try to achieve for poverty reduction in sustainable environment.

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Elena DANILOVA-CROSS • Programme Analyst at UNDP

In an era of falling response rates, it may seem that all household populations are hard to survey, but some populations present special challenges that make them harder. When measuring poverty through poverty surveys, it should be recognized that certain categories of people who may be among the most likely to be poor are frequently omitted from the sampling frame since they do not live in private households. The welfare of marginalized groups such as homeless people (including street children), drug users, sex workers, people who are in institutions (including elderly care homes, children’s homes, and mental health institutions); people in temporary accommodation or hostels; prisoners; and refugees in camps or illegal immigrants is notoriously difficult to assess systematically.

In most demographic studies where representative household surveys are the gold standard for data collection, such marginalized population segments are lost by definition or, at best, are grossly underrepresented. An additional set of problems concerns the willingness of individuals from marginalized, hard-to-reach groups to provide information to survey interviewers, especially about the type of sensitive matters that define their marginality (undocumented migrants), or difficulty in being interviewed (low literacy groups, or where there is a language barrier). It can be argued that the same social characteristics and constraints that hinder access to these individuals may also impair their willingness or ability to answer survey questions. These types of bias led to significant underestimation of poverty rates in EU-SILC.

A significant number of children would be excluded from usual survey samples. For example, in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe between 1 and 2 per cent of children are growing up in institutionalized care, and children from poor or excluded backgrounds have been shown to be more likely to be institutionalized. Others are involved in seasonal migration or in marginal or excluded communities (e.g., Roma), whose households may not be included in surveys. Children may be omitted from household responses due to the reluctance of the respondent to recognize as household members foster children, trafficked children, or children who are engaged in hazardous child labour.

Some populations are less represented in household surveys because they live in remote areas, enclaves or in families or communities whose presence is illegal and unregistered, for example Roma populations. The challenge remains that surveys are better suited to cover only the easily accessible populations. Covering all the “hard to sample”, “hard to identify”, “hard to find or contact”, “hard to persuade” or “hard to interview” categories of respondents may make a survey complicated and costly. Such a challenge must be met with innovative strategies for sampling, identifying, locating, contacting and interviewing.

A recent study conducted by Ukraine’s Academy of Sciences, for example, found a systematic downward bias in the income distribution data of household surveys in Ukraine. Non-response rates for living conditions surveys during 2010-2012 in Kyiv—Ukraine’s capital region—were double the national average, and many times greater than the non-response rates reported for Ukraine’s poorer rural regions. Correcting this bias would raise Ukraine’s official Gini coefficient for income equality from 23 to 27 (Sarioglu, 2016).

 

 

 

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Edwin John

The most important resource on which UN could depend for implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and  the ultimate stakeholders when it comes to the achievement of SDGs, remains untapped. And that is people themselves. We try to rope in governments, INGOs,  CBOs, FBOs, philanthropists, media and what not. But inadequate effort is taken to tap the biggest potential actor of  all which is people themselves.

Who , for example, are most  interested in eradicating poverty? In having peace? In ensuring inequality? Politicians? The country governments? More than all of them, people want these goals realised. 

But people are not organised as viable units to articulate and get things done. They get submerged under various structures and identities like governments, nongovernmental organisations and the like . These structures and identities have their own vested interests and competing goals that can tend to work against the interests of the people.

It is time people have their own structures as people, and not merely as subjects of this government under this party or ideology and that non governmental organizaion under this funding agency's priorities or so.

When people don't have their own autonomous structures on the basis of nothing else other than their identity as people, they are divided by various factional identities  and unable to express themselves as people of the world.

This way my suggestion is that UN tries to work for a structure  where people could speak out as people beyond their national, ideological, religious and other cultural identities.

The structure should be such that not some people talk but all people. Even the last and the least person must be a part of such a global articulation process and nobody should be left out.

The best way to do this is to start from below, a bottom up approach.

UN should muster all its resources and all the supports possible from governments, INGOs, FBOs, CBOs,media and what not, to ensure that people are organised neighbourhood-based Global Goals  or Sustainable Development Goals Communities of about 30 families each.

Before I say anything further about this, lest what I am about to say sounds an unrealistic and unrealisable flight of imagination, I need to say that I have been associated with the organisation of hundreds of thousands such neighbourhood communities.

For example, the State of Kerala in India, organised 280000 such neighbourhood communities of women in poverty risk for poverty eradication and have federated them already as a three-tier structure at the local governance level. Please visit www.kudumbashree.org to see their achievements. 

In addition to organising such neighbourhood groups of poor women, the same State has come out with policies which get the  33 million-strong population of the State organised into such small-sized neighbourhood assemblies  (Ayal Sabha) and federated into a three-tier structure for participatory local governance. The State government's Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) has come out with a six volume guidelines on local governance through such neighbourhood assemblies. It  has already initiated orientation and planning sessions on getting these structures work for SDGs.

 Another experiment of small-sized neighbourhood-based participatory units and their federation at various levels is the neighbourhood parliaments of children. About a hundred thousand units of such units get federated at various levels. They have already a national child prime minister in India. The too are electing 17 child ministers in each unit of their neighbourhood parliament of about thirty children. Accordingly they have elected 17 national child ministers too to represent the SDGs at national level. They also published guideline booklets containing suggestions on what such  ministers for each SDGs could do. Please visit details, www.childrenparliament.in and Facebook page children parliament global.

 

Such neighbourhood-based organisation initiatives are not limited to Kerela either but seen in various other States and countries mostly as non-governmental efforts.

 

Such neighbourhood communities are to be organised all over the world as inclusive geographical territory-based communities so that none is left out. In each of these communities we should have a person each to respond  to an SDG each. Hence 17 ministers in each neighbourhood community of  about  30 families.

 

These neighbourhood communities are to be federated through representative structures at various other levels based on no other consideration than just the number of the units represented at each level. This would mean also a global grassroots-based each for each SDG.5

 

 

This should be people's own  autonomous multi-tier global federation for realising UN goals. Pls. Visit www.neighborhoodparliament.org and www.neighbourhoodization.org

 

If UN takes the lead in this regard,people could come together at various levels, and even global level, and dream together and work together for global goals. If the UN takes the lead, many of us are ready to bring our experience and expertise of decades to help.

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Pradip Dey

Dear All,

Good day!

I am providing the following observations in personal capacity and not in official capacity. Agriculture is the mainstay of India with more than half of the Indian population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. The following programmes/schemes which being implemented by different Ministries/Departments ranging from single component/commodity based sectoral scheme to area based integrated approach which are giving dividents with time. These are some example which can be emulated by developing and under developed countries for better agricultural growth.

  • A National Mission on Soil Health Card has been launched to provide soil tested based fertilizer recommendation based on STCR approach to all the farmers in the country based on the twelve soil parameters.
  • The Government under the component of soil health management of  National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is promoting soil test based balanced and integrated nutrient management in the country through setting up/strengthening of soil testing laboratories, establishment of  bio-fertilizer and compost unit, use of micronutrients, trainings and demonstrations.
  • A number of value added fertiliser materials fortified with secondary and micronutrients have been enlisted in Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) to promote balanced and efficient use of fertilisers.
  • Customised fertilisers specific to crop, soil and area specific are also promoted.
  • The Govt. of India took a historical policy decision of introduction of Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) on N, P, K and Sulphur containing fertilizers. Additional subsidy for fertilizers fortified with zinc and boron was paid at the rate of Rs. 500 and Rs. 300 per tonne, respectively. It well help in ensuring efficient use of plant nutrients including secondary and micronutrients.
  • The Department of Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers has declared subsidy on city compost @ Rs. 1500 per tonne to serve twin objectives of supporting government’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and providing manures to farmers.
  • The government is implementing National Biogas and Manure Management Programme aiming at setting-up of Family Type Biogas Plants at rural and semi-urban/households level for recycling of rural wastes linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants (http://mnre.gov.in/schemes/decentralized-systems/schems-2/).  
  • The Government under “Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana is promoting micro irrigation/fertigation.
  • Under Watershed Management Programme, the major activities taken up include soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting and storage.
  • The Government is also implementing programme under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) for reclamation of Problem soils (viz., saline, alkali and acid soils). 

 Thanks and regards.

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Marshall MBAMFU

MBAMFU MUSAMUNI Marshall

Chief Administrative Officer: Centre Africain de Recherche Interdisciplinaire CARI; Kinshasa RD Congo.

Nous sommes en face d'une mission difficile à réaliser dans sa totalité à savoir l'éradication de la pauvreté . Si on comprend bien, éradiquer la pauvreté revient à dire ''effacer la pauvreté pour donner place à la richesse". A notre avis, la pauvreté ne date pas de notre époque. Depuis le début du monde, il y a toujours les riches d'une part et les pauvres de l'autre. ça est un fait naturel. Nous pouvons penser à réduire la pauvreté dans le monde car il ya la pauvreté comme état d'esprit, et la pauvreté matérielle. Si l'on se pose la question de savoir comment la réduire, la réponse est simple. L'économiste Adam Smith dans son célèbre ouvrage sur la richesse des nations ne disait-il pas que seul le travail est source de richesse?

Réduire la pauvreté sur la planète revient à dire qu'il faut travailler et gagner les moyens nécessaires pour la survie. Toutes les stratégies de lutte contre la pauvreté doivent être tournées vers la création des emplois rémunérateurs au profit de ceux qui en manquent et en cherchent.

Cette mission est difficile dans le monde actuel où il ya les plus riches qui veulent maintenir leur position, et les plus pauvres qui cherchent à accéder à la richesse. C'est la lutte des classes, Personne ne se laissera faire. Au niveau des Etats, les riches ne permettront pas que les pauvres accèdent au même titre qu'eux à la richesse. D'où des stratégies telle que la fixation des prix des matières premières par les acheteurs, plus riches et non par les vendeurs. Donc je ne peut acheter qu'à ce prix là, à laisser ou à prendre. C'est déjà une barrière à la richesse. comment peut-on briser cette barrière? Difficile à y croire.

Si entre Etats il y a lutte des classes, a fortiori entre les peuples au sein d'une nation.

Là c'est encore plus pire. Dans nos pays en développement, le problème d'éradication de la pauvreté semble devenir une gageure impossible à tenir. Nous constatons que même les décideurs au plus haut niveau du pays, recherchent la domination des autres pour faire croire au commun de mortel que la vie est un mystère. D'où, il faut se sacrifier pour survivre, par exemple, se nourrir, se vêtir, se déplacer, se loger, etc. Les besoins fondamentaux de l'homme constituent un calvaire.

Dans cet esprit, l'éradication de la pauvreté reste une gageure impossible, et la réduction de la pauvreté, une mission difficile à atteindre. On peut crier beau, mais, mais.

Mettons - nous ensemble et raisonnons bien. La pauvreté nous accompagnera jusqu'à la mort.

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

This has been a very rewarding discussion. I feel each one of us has learned a great deal. And once again, Jimmy van de Putt points at the question that has  been the less taken into consideration hitherto, regarding all the efforts mankind is doing in order that no one is left behind. And is what one feels when one is poor: one actually feels one is unable to become someone different.

This is the mental and invisible barrier that frustrates many a noble and well guided effort in our struggle against poverty. We should take this fact into very careful consideration if we are to improve the quality and the effectiveness of our future aid. 

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Mauricio López Dardaine • from Argentina

Jimmy van de Putte concludes by stating that any UN or government project ought to focus on this first, that is: make those individuals the object of the project, actually feel within themselves that they may become someone different, may improve their station in life!!!

Eskil Ullberg • from Sweden

I will focus mainly on the first question: How will policies need to be adjusted in different contexts to ensure that they more effectively contribute to leaving no one behind in the achievement of SDG1 and related SDGs?

 

Focus on institutional policy regarding leveraging human capital formation appears an understudied area. This is especially true in the area of intellectual property rights; the property rights by which ideas developed into solutions in the developing nations can traded across the world at Internet speed.

Institutional policy here means that these rights aught to 1) be available to developing countries and the millions of educated people there in recent decades and 2) institutional arrangements for facilitating trade at company level with international firms aught to be a priority. The first step, providing the legal framework, is a complex process in itself, but has achieved some success the last decade, especially since several BRICS and non-BRICS countries begin to take the IP issue seriously. Human capital, through knowledge possessed by nationals, is perhaps seen as a creative, inventive force in a service economy context, not simply “manual labor” in factories. However, it is mainly the inventive portion – the new ideas – that may be the potential for developing nations and eradication of poverty based on human capital formation and collaboration with the developed world.

The second one is much less underdeveloped both in the North and the South, giving many nations a chance to “catch up”. Most policies favor industrial manufacturing, through economies of scale (lowering cost but not creating much jobs), or service partnerships, through low cost and creating more jobs. In Sub Sahara Africa for example the #1 sector growth appears to be services and agriculture. Fewer policies make it easy to collaborate using “IP leveraged” human capital, the only sustainable resource of any country.

This complex problem can be studied using experimental economics, where a simplified institutional environment and patent system can be designed and real individuals participating as human “subjects”. In my experimental research on markets in patents (technical solutions providing long-term productivity) and coordination between inventors, traders and innovators, the results show that the institutional policy is in fact more important than the patent system policy when it comes to willingness to search for and find a more productive technology (See http://rdcu.be/nWdL). This indicates that how these markets are designed matters at least as much as (in the experiment more than) the work that has been done for decades in establishing the IP systems.

Some may say: “These are the problems of the rich”. No, it is the problem of anyone wanting to leverage their human capital formation. One result of this work points at the very long time it takes to find the most competitive technology in these experiments. Typically about 30+ “rounds” are needed, in a complex technology area. This can be interpreted as years thus about 30 years to find a competitive technology. If the economic life of a competitive technology on average is about 7 years, and we want some return, let’s say 3.5y then we have to find this technology in 3.5years. This is then only possible if we do about 8-10 parallel research and development efforts. Only the very largest nations can afford such development, all other nations have to cooperate with each other. This thus means that by cooperating between smaller nations (with respect to IP) the competitive edge of human capital can be realized.

Policies to encourage such exchange between developing nations include corporate policy giving incentives to trade the ideas, tax policy with respect to inventive activity and the like.

Can this really be applicable to poverty eradication? Yes, as most invention is local, meeting local needs. These firms, collaborating with international firms, will then provide products and service related jobs, leveraging the human capital formation of whole nations!

What are some measures that can be uses? A measure of such creativity and cooperation would thus be a measure of long-term sustained development base on human capital. Current measures appear to be limited to IP licensing (IMF stats).

Examples of what is illustrated are a rising number of collaborations between firms in African countries and Swiss companies, for example the world’s first Drone airports in Rwanda as “transportation infrastructure”, and collaborative start-up initiatives. One can also say that Safaricom’s licensing of MPESA technology further advanced in Kenya to Eastern Europe, is such an example.

When it comes to policy recommendations, one should therefore look carefully at what institutional policies would encourage the creation of such local firms. Clearly a need for data is always present. The policies rest on the accessibility of IP rights, in this case patents, but the institutional policy of using the technology in cooperation with others is more decisive, one should therefore add that to the policy instruments.

 

Eskil Ullberg, PhD

Adjunct Professor, George Mason University, USA
eskil.ullberg@ullberg.biz

For more information on these topics in a general sense see http://report.ullberg.biz or email 

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Roumate Fatima • President at Institut International de la Recherche Scientifique from Morocco

ICT are a  very important tool for eradicating poverty, yet some conditions need to be taken into account like the creation of digital trust, the promotion of freedom and the insurance of the right to information. In this sens, the liberalization of the telecomunication sector can f reduce the State Monopoly and facilitate access  of all to ICT. The use of ICT to combat poverty need to be also accompained by other measures such as the adaption of language and the content to the cultural specificities of each countries. Considering that women are the most vulnerable to the poverty, ICT can be invested also in dessimination the culture of gender equality, to enhance women empowerment and to integrate the participatory and territorial approach in all development projects.

Associate Professor of International Law, University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco

roumate.f@gmail.com

 

 

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Diego Zavaleta • Research Officer at OPHI, University of Oxford from Chile

What are some innovative examples of employing data and the data revolution to identify and assess policy needs of those left behind?

‘Leaving no one behind’ requires first that we make sure that we are not leaving people behind simply because we are not properly identifying the poor and vulnerable within countries. The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and national multidimensional poverty indices - like those used by Colombia, Armenia or Pakistan – are proving useful tools to complement income poverty measurement. These indices assess the situation of people in multiple dimensions at the same time. The MPI, for example, evaluates the situation of people in 10 indicators in three dimensions – health, education and living standards. When poverty results based on these indices are contrasted with income poverty figures, we find some telling results. Sometimes, results match (at least, more or less). Yet, more often than expected, multidimensional figures are remarkably higher, or vice versa (see Figure 5 at http://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Global-MPI-2016-8-pager.pdf for disparities within African countries, for example). More importantly, in many cases only a fraction of people will be identified as poor by both methods (so not even choosing the method that yields higher poverty rates guarantees leaving no one behind). This implies that one type or the other of people living in poverty will be left behind from policy considerations if we assess poverty strictly from one angle. The use of both poverty methods at the same time to properly identify the needs of those living in poverty (income poor and multidimensionally poor; non-income poor yet multidimensionally poor; etc.) is thus an innovative example of how data and new methodologies can be used to improve policies and make sure no one is really left behind.