New evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts

20 Mar - 17 Apr 2017
Go back to E-Discussion on the 2017 ECOSOC Theme

Published on 16 March 2017 in E-Discussion on the 2017 ECOSOC Theme

  • What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology?
  • What are new evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts through integrated policies and programmes that address poverty in all its dimensions?
  • What are ways in which opportunities have been expanded to empower persons living in poverty through participation in political, economic and public life?
  • How can access to land, natural resources and other assets be ensured to facilitate and support poverty eradication, while reducing exposure and vulnerability to climate change and other extreme events?

Photo Credit: UN Photo/Pasqual Gorriz

Comments (73)

Wenyan Yang • Chief of Social Perspective on Development Branch, Division for Social Policy and Development of UNDESA at Division for Social Policy and Development of DESA from United States Moderator

Discussion Summary (Week 1: 23 – 26 March 2017)

I would like to thank everyone for their contributions so far. I am especially pleased with the many concrete suggestions put forward on how to eradicate poverty. I look forward to hearing more from all of you, as well as more interactions among participants.

The broad range of inputs included contributions on issues related to leadership, education, access to information, employment, support systems and the roles of NGOs and the private sector. Below is a summary of the key points made during the first week of discussion:

1. What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology?

  • It was suggested that there is a need for a long term solution to address issues related to persons displaced by land development projects, such as recruitment of social workers for helping them. These social workers would assist in providing the children of displaced persons with access to basic education and job placement for parents.
     
  • It was suggested that in addition to government, NGOs play an important role in poverty eradication through providing assistance based on their local knowledge and networks. Business leaders also have an important role to play through promoting corporate social responsibility.
     
  • One participant described how India is looking at ways to create employment opportunities under an employment guarantee scheme that helps workers with work, wages and food in times when the harvest for the year is over and work is scarce. It was noted that while this is a good initiative, it needs to be monitored properly by the local administrators.
     
  • One participant identified transformational leadership as the catalyst for poverty reduction. It was argued that even with sufficient funding and a solid plan for execution, without leadership that builds consensus and resolve, the programs are bound to fail. Transformational leadership must look for solutions that benefit others and enhances motivation and engagement of followers by directing their behaviour towards a shared vision that focuses on bettering the people.

2. What are new evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts through integrated policies and programmes that address poverty in all its dimensions?

  • One participant suggested that innovative entrepreneurial sustainable business projects provide a great opportunity to help alleviate poverty and to provide sustainable business opportunities around the world. What is needed is existing technical, financial and business expertise, an improved understanding of sustainable business practices, skilled and efficient training resources and access to small amounts of financing for projects. Food production and processing, crafts, tourism and recycling are among the business sectors that are most amenable to these approaches. Many small projects, employing a small number of people pose less risk and more opportunity than trying to undertake a small number of much larger projects.
     
  • Another participant stated that policies to eradicate poverty include population control, reducing profit margins and strengthening research and development.
     
  • One participant described an NGO in Kuala Lumpur has that has been providing free education to many children. The activities of the NGO include service activities (monthly home provisions provided to needy families) and spiritual camps where students are taught about values. The NGO conducts three programmes catering to 1) parent care 2) gathering youth for motivational activities, 3) youth movement to address gender issues (abuse, preventive measures to be put into place),4) youth to mobilise support for drug, alcohol and family issues. The support provided through this NGO has proven to transform the lives of the children.

3. What are ways in which opportunities have been expanded to empower persons living in poverty through participation in political, economic and public life?

  • One participant suggested the following four key principles in empowering persons living in poverty to more fully participate in political, economic and public life:
  1. promoting education that includes educational and career counselling at the secondary school level, civic engagement and volunteering to better the community;
  2. involving youth in the local municipal areas of governance, where key changes and positive societal growth can be realized;
  3. reinforcing the principle of multiplication of positive outreach, which refers to the ripple effect of positive influence; and
  4. strengthening support for poor people and disenfranchised at the local level provided by economic and business enterprises to ensure that such benefits reach those who need it the most.

4. How can access to land, natural resources and other assets be ensured to facilitate and support poverty eradication, while reducing exposure and vulnerability to climate change and other extreme events?

  • One participant stressed the importance of ensuring access to science, technology and information on water, food and energy. It is vital for such information to be freely available online.
     
  • In response, a participant described an initiative started 3 years ago by the Indian Government. Under the initiative, 25 cable television channels are providing free information on horticulture, irrigation and agriculture. The participant also described an Internet based discussion group exchanging information on health, finance, government policies.
     
  • Another participant wrote about the need for more prudent use of water.Most poor people in the world are afflicted by lack of food and decent work. But some of them own some land that has become un-arable due to lack of rainfall. This land could be made arable again through measures including creating small ponds adjacent to farms and houses to provide water for drinking and cooking.  The amount of money spent on urban water supply/availability could be greatly reduced by more prudent use of water as well.
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Adriana Galvani • Assisant Professor at University of Bologna IT

Today we are speaking about "circular economy", but poor countries are relegated to the role of "circular poverty". Poor people, is always expecting donations, but the practice of donations is an unending story, since it is only commensurated to the  basic biologic needs. After donations, needs increase at more elvated range. Unfortunately, demographic amount also increases, but this is boundless.

The art of donation is closed in itself, being non-productive, like the money which is suddendly spent.

The only long-term and productive donation is education. The pity is that this doesn't appeal the corrupted governments.

Siriporn Pipatshukiat • PhD student at Mahidol University from Thailand

Honestly, I would be very excited for this events 5 years ago.
Now I am not. I saw the recent topic, and I guess I will try to have faith again.
Being the voices is not enough anymore. The organization need to spend more time in making those voices that have gotten attention, carried out into practices. Those voices, have not exactly grow, at least from my opinion in my country, but latter it opened a new pave the new pathway for abusive manipulative close circuit group in society. Also, please do homework on your representative in each country. Stop listening to summary to those having team of large PR. If looking for votes, then it achieve the goal. But if seek to really solve the problematic issues. That is not enough.
You cannot solve poverty by giving job alone. You need to empower people, or else, those with newly jobs will continue to be discruminate, continue to be oppressed. And living in the era of capuitalism, people with job will suffer the demand from society that seek to seduce people spending money on thing they do not need. To be belong, in a sustainable, healthy psychological well-being manner, job is not enough. Without empowerment, strengthening, at the core of being human, with the stakeholder seeking to sales, what do you think it add up too.
It is great you are trying to listen, but you are not listening to the right group of people you try to reach, you are not seeing.
And my recent experiences, the human right movement to legal reform , etc locally.
It was a set-up, with camera and flasjh and script, and it is being online, very interactive, but a precise calculated group of people were united for the wrong goals (they were trick into), and not the general population know of the event. I was happened to be there to meet with some amnesty member, to discuss issue I will be addressing in my research. And that is a total fail. Please send babysitter to your representative, once in awhile for check up.

I do respect your organization, it used to be my dream jobs.
All I se now is politic.
Sorry to be frank.

I wish you all well, I hope all your members remember the reason of the emergence of the organization, I hope you refocus back with integrity.
And speaking is not enough anymore, for I believed almost everyone on this planet Earth should at least know about the goal of striving, but without serious implementing it, it is just another fairy tales.

Yours Sincerely,

Siriporn Pipatshukiat

Wenyan Yang • Chief of Social Perspective on Development Branch, Division for Social Policy and Development of UNDESA at Division for Social Policy and Development of DESA from United States Moderator

It is my pleasure to welcome you to the discussion on Thematic Window II: “New evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts”. This Window is part of the 2017 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) e-Discussion, organized by UN DESA and UNDP, which will run from 20 March to 12 April 2017.

Through the historic 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Heads of State and Governments unanimously adopted a holistic, universal, transformative, 15-year global plan of action to end poverty, reduce inequalities and protect our planet. This new Agenda cannot succeed without the firm and sustained commitments of all countries and the involvement of all stakeholders, including citizens, development practitioners, policy makers, academics and representatives from the public and private sectors.

The e-Discussion is designed as an open space for dialogue with people from around the world on the 2017 ECOSOC main theme “Eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions through promoting sustainable development, expanding opportunities and addressing related challenges”. Your engagement in this discussion provides a unique opportunity to provide your views, inputs, policy messages and recommendations to ECOSOC. These will be included in a summary of the e-Discussion and reflected in the report of the UN Secretary-General on the ECOSOC theme. The Council is eager to have its High-Level segment in July reflect a broad range of stakeholder views.

We’re particularly keen to hear about concrete examples and specific recommendations which you might have in relation to the theme. As the moderator for this Window, I suggest we begin by exploring the following questions:

  1. What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology?
  2. What are new evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts through integrated policies and programmes that address poverty in all its dimensions?
  3. What are ways in which opportunities have been expanded to empower persons living in poverty through participation in political, economic and public life?
  4. How can access to land, natural resources and other assets be ensured to facilitate and support poverty eradication, while reducing exposure and vulnerability to climate change and other extreme events?

These questions are meant to provide general guidance. While I hope that they help your contributions to be focused and concise, you need not be constrained by them. In your responses, kindly indicate which question you are addressing.

I look forward to reading and reacting to your thoughts, insights and concrete examples.

Wenyan Yang
Chief, Social Perspective on Development Branch
Division for Social Policy and Development
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs

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Balasaheb Kulkarni • from India

मला ह्या  चर्चेत  भाग  घेताना आनंद  होत  आहे गरिबी  हटवण्यासाठी  काय  करता  येईल  हयावर  खुप चर्चा  झाली आपणाला  कोणत्या  देशात  लोक  गरीब  आहेत हे  माहीत  आहे त्यांची  गरिबी  दूर  होण्यासाठी  कार्यक्रम जागतिक  स्थरावर राबवला  पाहिजे 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

The Government in office in India,is looking at ways to find employment under employment guarantee scheme.This helps the basic workers to have work,wages and food in times where the agriculture or other related activities are not happening,in the cycle of a year. This is a good initiative but to be monitored properly by the local administrators.

Wenyan Yang • Chief of Social Perspective on Development Branch, Division for Social Policy and Development of UNDESA at Division for Social Policy and Development of DESA from United States Moderator

Thank you for sharing! Could you provide us with additional information on the initiative such as how they identify beneficiaries, whether it is a national initiative or only in certain states and the names of the Government Ministries and other actors involved?

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Since this reply button is working,i am posting the reply to the moderator comment below.[1]Registers at various block of villages,with address,identity proof,and bank account number etc are maintained to know the persons who wants to avail the scheme.2.The district administration and project admin also locally call people and list them.

3.When the agriculture season ends,they will find suitable time to draw the schemes for earth work,,bund making,reservior- desilting,canal or road making etc.

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Colin Isaacs

My particular area of interest and expertise for this theme is in the field of entrepreneurial sustainable business. To explain what is meant I will briefly share three examples:

- in the Atlantic forest area of Brasil, where poverty is very high, we developed a business strategy based on sustainable use of renewable resources from the forest: fruits, nuts, and wood. A local non-profit organization was formed to organize the initiative; processes were developed for packaging of fruits and nuts into a number of finished food products both for domestic consumption and for export and for conversion of sustainably harvested wood into fine furniture primarily for export; monitoring systems were devised to ensure a sustainable harvest; and transportation systems were put in place to deliver products to market. The initiative was very low cost and was financed primarily with funds provided by the private sector, mostly companies that would become distributors for the products, and some small amount of help from the Government of Canada through its Sustainable Cities Initiative. The project was developed through the joint initiative of Canadian and local expertise.

- in a very poor city in northern Argentina I worked with the municipality and a community of garbage pickers to put in place a curbside collection program for recyclable materials, primarily beverage containers (plastic and metal) and corrugated cardboard. At the time ngo's were pushing to have the garbage pickers, who were a community of about 50 males and their families, locked out of the landfill for very clear health and safety reasons. However the community of garbage pickers were among the most wealthy people in the city and were clearly not willing to abandon their work voluntarily. We saw an opportunity to help the garbage pickers use their expertise in recycling to build a much safer and healthier recycling business that would trap the valuable materials before they went into the landfill. The business was shown to be more profitable with less effort than garbage picking and was soon able to collect much more material with much less contamination, hence higher value, than the landfill-based garbage picking business. The project was funded in part through the Canadian International Development Agency, the Government of Canada Sustainable Cities Initiative. and private sector investment from processors of the materials being collected.

- in Chile a small fish packing operation was marketing product primarily for the local market. With expertise and technology from Canada the company was helped to grow and to export its products to the North American market. The quantity of product available to the local market was maintained so as to ensure continued availability of nutritious food for the local population. The cost of the project was low and the company was enabled to more than triple its employment while at the same time qualifying all of its products as sustainably harvested seafood. The project was financed 100% by a major retailer of seafood in Canada.

In my opinion it is projects like these that provide a great opportunity to help alleviate poverty and to provide sustainable business opportunities around the world. What is needed is available technical, financial and business expertise, an improved understanding of what it is that constitutes sustainable business, skilled and efficient training resources, and access to sources of small amounts of financing to stimulate the projects. I see food production and processing, crafts, tourism, and recycling as being among the business sectors that are most amenable to these approaches. Many small projects, employing directly maybe fifty to a hundred people each and maybe the same number again in indirect employment, likely pose less risk and more opportunity than trying to undertake a small number of much larger projects employing hundreds or thousands.

I hope this post will stimulate some discussion of similar innovative entrepreneurial sustainable business opportunities for addressing poverty.

Michael Frederiksen • President at Community Education Services (CES) Canada from Canada

In Kenya there are 1.2 M youth orphaned under the age of 19 years of age. A large percentage (est.75%) LIVE IN ACUTE POVERTY. There are 4 million Kenyans currently experiencing drought and lack of nutrition due to the lack of access to water. The third reality is the huge percentage (65%) of unemployment for Kenyan youth between the ages of 18 and 25 years who have achieved a minimum of the KCSE, otherwise known as the basic Grade 12 secondary education. Some have gone on to higher learning and still find roadblocks to their career and finding jobs. Factored together, this data shows a picture of people without power and without voice. As one with experience in education, water management, community health and nutrition I am suggesting four key principles in empowering persons living in poverty to more fully participate in political, economic and public life.

The first is engaging in a journey of education that includes educational and career counselling at the secondary school level, civic engagement and volunteering to better the community. Secondly it is critical for youth to be involved at the local municipal areas of governance. That is where key changes and positive societal growth can be realized. Thirdly, the principle of multiplication of positive outreach needs to be reinforced. Basically, that means that as one life is influenced for the better, the spinoffs suggest the lives of 7 others are more fully enhanced. Lastly,, in an environment where benefits trickle down from the top , seldom reaching the ground level where they are needed the most, it is critical for economic and business enterprise at the local level find ways to support the poor and disenfranchised.

Social Justice for all
Bubacarr Njie • Country Representative at Global Institute for Women Empowerment from Gambia

How can the U.N system support young organizations that are willing to to use innovative and effective methods through the modern farming techniques to support rural farmers to improve agricultural development in the Gambia.

Ricardo Silva • from Brazil

To all forum participants:
The only way to eradicate poverty in my humble opinion, in three ways:

1) population control - we will have to reduce the world population in the next 100 years or there will be no planet or food for all, even if technology is discovered to synthesize food;

2) Reduce profit margins - companies want to earn a lot. I do not want to socialize the world, but you do not need cell phones or luxury cars that allow you to buy tons of food. We need cars that take us somewhere and a cell phone that allows us to talk to other people. Luxury widens the gap between rich and poor. The ostentation of wealth is unnecessary. The world needs food, health and education. A pharmaceutical company does not need to make as much profit on a tablet. As a drug that costs to make $ 0.0015 per pack, already packaged, it can be sold for $ 0.65 in the industry, and $ 1.50 at the pharmacy? Greed is distancing rich from the poor.

3) Focus on research - Research and development needs to be encouraged in the areas of need. The united nations will contribute if they can establish their own research centers that create the necessary competition with the business market and drive down prices, and stimulate complementary research in the areas of basic sanitation, water care, development of perennial species of grain, Including medicines.

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Amelia • Member at WAFUNIF from Trinidad and Tobago

I agree with your recommendations. Population growth especially in countries and communities where there are no family planning services has to be addressed through the provision of health services and improved access of all, especailly women to such services. China's polciy of one child per family seemed to be strict with many negative results but the greater good of the nation  was uppermost in the minds of policy makers and combined with other socioeconomic planning the nation as a whole has been able to advance. The sensitisation of men in particular through media in local parlance on subjects considered cultural taboos should be pursued.

 Food and nutrition, affordable shelter/housing , clothing and education are the basics of the right to development recognised by the UN but an important issue is the large sums of donor funds and government earnings that are spent on the purchase of arms for military backed regimes,  by private agents involved in civil wars  for political power or by paramilitary actors associated with the underworld of drugs, gangs and crime. Research can  indicate how much is spent on arms and how much can and should be diverted to meet the needs of the poor. Countries should be required to make a commitment to reduce expenditure on arms by a an agreed percentage and to divert these sums to alternative development spending.. In brief, if several of the civil wars across the Thirld World are brought to an end the very raison d'aitre for them- an end to corruption and improved quality of life for the dispossed- might stand a better chance of being achieved.

Yagoub Elryah (PhD)
Yagoub Elryah (PhD) • Research Associate, Economic Research Forum ERF at Industrial Research and Consultancy Center from Sudan

Its my honor to join and discuss with participants from all over the world. As a Sudanese living in a rural area, I experienced how poverty affects every corner in my community and obviously across Sudan. 

This opportunity represents an essential stage of joining an international debate on the global issue "Poverty" and policy makers can do to eliminated from the route. 

abubaker rashed • member at Society Development Association in Nubia from Egypt

International organizations operate through regional offices in Egypt
We, the people of Nubia, do not benefit from grants from international organizations
All of which are in paper files and do not implement the reality and do not serve these developmental grants people in my country, especially the south and villages Nubia in Egypt
I hope that international donor organizations will change their policy towards development grants to countries
Especially in Egypt and in the villages of Nubia

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Dr Suma Parahakaran

Some one had mentioned that policies in Malaysia is not very inclusive. This is a reality. There are so many plantations which have been transformed to land for building homes for development purposes .. thus displacing thousands of people from their education (non malay languages). They have no employment and have gone into small time businesses which may or may not be successful. Far east .. in Sabah there are people called  "Bajau laut: who do not have any education. Their children from Philippines and Indonesia as well as the "Sea children children who live in boats" do not have basic education. They beg around in the streets and are transferred to different islands. 

 

Although funds may help there is a need to solve these issues using long term agendas such as recruitment of civil members for helping them.  The bajau lauts go in boats to places and hence they are stateless and left alone to beg in the streets. People have tried to help but its a one time funding and there is no sustained help in such issues.

Suggestions are to identify representatives who sign contracts to educate these children, assess their education long term .It should be the responsibility of grantees to also do placement of jobs. Only under such conditions should UN provide funding to them. 

Dr Suma

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Dr Suma Parahakaran

New evidence of transformation in children 

Kuala Lumpur has an NGO that has been volunteering help by providing free tuition to many children. The activities the NGO is involved includes: 

Service activities: monthly home provisions provided to their homes after identifying the needy families 

Spiritual camps: where students are taught education in human values. Children learn through service learning and in the long term are in the habits of providing the needy,

There are three programmes catering to 1) Parent care 2) Gathering youth for long term service and motivational activities, 3) Youth movement to address gender issues (abuse, preventive measures to be put into place) , 4)  youth to mobilise support for drug, alcohol and family issues 

All these are done only on a volunteer basis and cannot be carried on on a daily basis because of lack of time and finance. Hence, civil groups could be set up to such groups on a daily basis. Such transformation through continous support will help them to help the next generation.

 

Dr Suma

 

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Dr Suma Parahakaran

Research and development for eradicating poverty 

Most countries which are developing and are needy do not have access to journal articles. Journal publications  are expensive and to convert local currency to a good scientific journal you require to pay a very high amount of money ! This process does not help to disseminate information to the common man. Institutions that provide support to students also charge good money for accessing such journals. There is also a scramble for reaching high index journals so that there is a chance to gain access to universities / promotion or to do well in their field of education. Thus the findings of educators who do not have access to such journals cannot be disseminated to common public and remain hidden from  large groups of people. 

Research and development can be improved if: many common platforms are available to the common man which are assessed through peer review and disseminated to common public for helping them understand where they head in their fields in the future.

2. If Science, technology and information on Water, Food and Energy are disseminated, half of our woes are solved. The public is kept away from such information. There is proof that previous civilisations (ancient) who shared information did well in high engineering fields and were prosperous.

 

suma

 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

I am thankful for the information available in the web from 2007,when we have the global jam on collabarative technologies,https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=r… We are flooded with information on websites.The students who are not taught how to use web are becoming teachers.The lack of training the trainer is wide evident every where.I am a member of many free access web sites such as below shown.

Indian Institute of Bridge Engineers.,IIBE-1718,

FIE[Institution Of Engineers-India].Institution of Valuers

Member Indian Concrete Institute, India, LM-2896,

Global Alliance For Climate Smart Agriculture-GACSA

MEMBER.Development of open access to Scientific Information and Research.[EIFL].

Member of hifa2015@dgroups.org,

Member web2fordev@dgroups.org,

Forum UNESCO - University and Heritage (FUUH),

UNDP-Team works user.

Forum Member Forum-GAPMIL[Global Alliance for Partnerships in to Media and Information Literacy]

https://one.unteamworks.org/user/

https://www.worldwewant2030.org/user/

https://www.habitat3.org/user/

 <williamsinstitute@law.ucla.edu><malaria@my.ibpinitiative.org>In google search we find many books freely available at various web sites,books whose copy right time has elapsed and available at many web sites.Digital technology does not necessarily mean only on line payment sites,but also means vrious aspects connected with life.

The most are health,Public health.India followed suit of developed countries,and Asia lost the importance of looking public health from the Engineers point of view.The removal of the subject from Engineering has many implications since last 30 years.

Money alone can not build every thing where ethics are lost,which we are discussing in Local circles,every date.Thus we are near to government in giving feed back on social happenings around us.We build projects all around India,and look at the habits,and culture.Many times locals come and ask us atleast give us 50% jobs.Give us some supervisory jobs,how we will be benefitted.

True if a project is to benefit the local their livelihoods shall also improve,even if it is gold mining,Coal mining,or even Uranium mining.Waste shall not creep in to the houses thus rendering them incapable and left to unknown bacteria/virus/pathogen etc.The world is worried several forms of Malaria and Neglected Tropical disease .

Systematic developmental works are needed to meet the population increases and their livilihood and developmental needs.

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Dr.Suma

The UN website on water and sanitation it self has many publications and standards.Similarly WHO web site we get the problems with virus/bacteria/pathogens and the problems where such occur.We also have the class of accepted drugs list for expected infections.

surya[Narayana-saripalli]

Michael Frederiksen • President at Community Education Services (CES) Canada from Canada

"It's All About Leadership"...we can throw money at programs and creative good solutions on paper...but without leadership that builds consensus and resolve, the programs are in vain.

CES Canada Leadership Scholar Sharon Walekhwa Nawire attends Egerton University (Njoro, Kenya) Year 2 in a BSc Agriculture Economics study program. Sharon's view on leadership complements her view of professionalism through service to others. Sharon comes from a humble background and she knows well the challenges of living in acute poverty. Her comments focus on Leadership - how to get things done. There is much to be said for Transformational Leadership being the catalyst for poverty reduction. 

Top five values and beliefs for transformational leaders:

  • Dream big dreams
  • Keep the characteristic of humility
  • Focus on bettering people
  • Take risks to make things happen
  • Believe in the power of prayer

Thoughts on Transformational Leadership

I consider transformational leadership style more important to be seen at this time in Kenya's history than transactional leadership.

First, transformational leadership enhances motivation and engagement of followers by directing their behaviour towards a shared vision. This can help Kenyan leaders to uplift its citizens leading to success in all parts of the country.

Secondly it enhances loyalty to friends and families as long as they are all operating within the purview vision. Kenya will be able to remain loyal to their neighbours and internationally if they are working towards a common goal. Therefore there would be no enmity, hence the country may achieve its vision.

Thirdly, it is required to avoid alignment of personal achievement to the tribal leaders. The Kenyan leaders should not just think of themselves and their home but need to work hard in bettering the entire country. They need not to subordinate the tribal agenda in favour of our national dreams. Transformational leadership requires one or more persons to engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher level of motivation and morality.

Transformational leadership is much needed in order for Kenyan leaders to offer both intellectual and moral leadership.

 Thoughts on Servant Leadership

Characteristics of those who regularly practice servant leadership:

  • They fight and practice justice, racial equality and freedom
  • Offer inclusive vision
  • Persuade through reasons
  • Listen carefully to others and seek their advice
  • Heal division while building community
  • When facing a problem they look for a solution that benefits everyone
  • When something goes wrong, they take the blame but when things go well, they share the credit
  • They tell everyone the same story even when it's inconvenient or difficult
  • They work hard and inspire others to do the same

Testimony

The principal of my alma mater Sidikho SS is a leader whom I consider to include in the company of servant leaders. Having known that he doesn't have all answers to every situation, he often seeks advice from others. He is good enough to accept the advice from the whole staff and encouragement from his fellow principals. This has made him achieve his goal of bettering the community through quality education at Sidikho secondary school.

He practices justice. To him students have to receive equal treatment without considering their gender, age, family background or race. They are all equal and he doesn't see the use of discrimination among them. His character has taught the students a lesson and therefore they always treat each other equally.

The principal offers inclusive vision in school. Together with teachers, parents and students he works towards a common goal. He encourages the teachers by sharing class lessons with them, encourages students to concentrate on education by ensuring that no time is wasted and advises parents to play their role sufficiently. Indeed he is a good role model leader.

He is a principal who always fight for excellence. His school always does well in the National exam. He has produced the best girls’ students in the Navakholo sub county for six consecutive years. In case of an academic problem, he looks for a solution that benefits everyone and persuades others to solve problems. He is a servant leader who works hard and sacrifices much to bring light in Kenya as a nation. He is worthy to be included to the company of servant leaders of the world.

 Conclusion

A leader must engage with others in such a way that the leader and the followers raise one another to high level of motivation and morality. This will enhance the value of sharing the decision making abilities with the members. The leader has to do this knowing that there is no answer to every situation. Therefore the leader has to listen to others carefully.  

A leader, who promotes the interest of the group members, by practicing social equality and working together with others for a common goal, should have loyalty and show support for the members. To achieve the goal, the leader must look for solutions that benefit others. 

A leader who promotes the interest of the group members has to allow others to come forward. This can be done if the shared vision focuses on bettering the people. A leader works hard and inspires others to do the same. 

Sometimes, a leader must takes risks to make things happen. This allows others to come up and share the decision making abilities. The leader then must be clever enough, not to accept misleading decisions proposed by the followers. When things go wrong the leader must take the blame. When things go well, the leader should be aware that all will share the credit. 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Yes Good leadership comes out of Vision.Seeing new technology and new improvements in others.
Infact Indian sub continent has good leaders in most of the countries and in Indian state also.
But the support has to come from[a]business leaders,who shall not be greedy on earnings,but show that their corporates are for advancement of people friendly industry and business.It shall be corrective factor,a discussion issue with the governments to mend its polices while the companies train their staff and change production lines.Some way or other India and USA are in the same path.
2.The Indian government during last 3 years have started 25 channels for eduaction and are available free for institutions and public in the normal cable net works.These also include on horticulture,irrgation and agriculture.
3.The Local circles is a internet based discussion group discussing minitie after minite every hour about cleanliness,accidents,food,habits ,health,government policies,including Demonitization and currency issues,from a group of 0.15 million to 1 million strenth it has grown up.
Health hopsitalization and such costs are well discussed here.It gives strength to governments how they can get peoples views and how they can proceed.
I saw this in last 8 years in the group"white house"of USA.
Now a sight seeing person/a walker-a bye standard person can report on all social net works about the lives of others.
4.In 2004 while in general discussions at Construction Industry conclaves we suggested two things[a]Business and investment in Africa.This went well for some time.
But migration of people goes for Education,Jobs,war torn areas,in great numbers.Business people were always on look out for new oppurtunities.But this turned out to be stacking money in lockers for benificial use,while the use of public lending systems for money still goes on.
This led us in our discussions for world we want to put taxes and restrictions on company coming from an unkown location,with no history of productivity and some times no address at all.So money laundering has to be contained -3 years profit loss accounts,productivity systems in the country of origin from where the funds are to come have crept in to the minds of many mangers.
After all money systems are less than 200 years old and it needs innovation and correction in terms of managment for productivity and livilihood.
4.Leaders are good when followers and people who implement schemes have less money ambitions.The motive shall have to be to modernise the systems of life.
5.We have also now district level agriculture extension centres.
6.India thought in 2004 that less than 100 universities for 100 crores [billion] population is less and aimed 350-500 universities including 200 private universities to manage staff,teachers,students,their records etc.In the process many universites have come in to existing with nocapacity and utilizing the money meant for poor as a fee reimbursent to benifit the developers of engineering colleges where the skill set development is poor and out dates.UGC/AICTE are yet to come to terms to say that the education systems is to be revamped for future modern world.The governments are yet to come up and say i will use these funds to eliminate the hunger instead of fee reimbersement to the rich colleges.
These are some of the good or sucess stories,and some points where corrections are needed.

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Sanjay

I would like to put up few ideas that i had in mind for poverty eradication. And these revolve around judicial use of water on which a lot of money is being spent inefficiently.

I could see that most poor people in the world are afflicted by lack of food and proper work to earn a living. But most of them (if not all) do own some land that has become un-arable due to lack of rains. This land could be made arable once again if the small measures like digging up small ponds adjacent to farms and houses be done. This practice is well known to increase the water table level as well which could be used for drinking purposes.

Arable land with somewhat sufficient water supply would ensure farmers would be able to do subsistence farming at least.

http://www.thebetterindia.com/87443/3-girls-stepped-up-make-water-acces…

Besides the huge amount of money spent on urban water supply/availability could be controlled by judicious use of water as well.

http://www.thebetterindia.com/92434/a-r-shivakumar-rainwater-harvesting…

 

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Dr. Neeraja Havaligi • from United States

Thanks for sharing this Sanjay,

One of the ways to address poverty, especially in urban and peri-urban areas should include training in urban agriculture and value chain processing and marketing of produce that can be grown in home and community farms in these areas. Bringing these concepts as part of school curriculum will engage children and over-time reach out to parents to gather momentum. I see tremendous potential for urban agriculture and value chain processing and marketing of urban produce for ground-up capacity building among communities to tackle poverty and climate challenges. Bringing this issue of food-water-nutrition security into climate planning is essential if we want to address issue of poverty and resilience for long term.

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Soraya El-Deir

I would lik to talk about Brazil, a continental country, with many differents places and cultures. In a south region are more industrialization, a significant japaneses, chinese, italian and germany communities. In a north and northeast, have some agriculture and a significant percentual of population poverty, special in the semiarid region. There, where I development some reseach, the goverment are tryins to increase the quality of life for this population. 

With social tecnologies, many non governamental organizations are working to and with the tradictional populoation of familiar agriculture and artesanal fishers.

Elif Yasemin Azaz • Volunteer at Architecture For All Association of Turkey from Turkey

Hello Everyone,

Thanks to the moderators for inviting me to this discussion.

I would like to share some specific examples from Turkey. I have been volunteering for Architecture For All Association since March, 2016. Architecture For All A. aims creating awareness and design solutions to social problems in rural and urban areas of Turkey by providing participation of local people. You can review some works of  Architecture For All A. from my recent blogpost: http://bit.ly/2n0WYPG

So how a movement like 'Solidarity Architecture' could inspire poverty eradication works around the World? I think this question's answer depends on two variables.

1- What factors Solidarity Architecture's success depends on in Turkey.

2- A global strategy to tackle poverty eradication.

To start from A.1, three factors are effective for Solidarity Architecture's success:

A- Utilization of design as a tool for solving social problems.

B- Providing local people's participation for solving social problems.

C- The conciousness and attitude of seeking justice on basic rights (This factor is very similar to the objective of poverty eradicaton at the overall sense but I think it still needs to be integrated into global strategy).

Furthermore, two factors are urgent for a global strategy:

A- To have proper strategies for different regions that have different dynamics.

B- To increase conciousness of local people to the problems they face in their local regions and their solutions which is possible by communication and education.

Wenyan Yang • Chief of Social Perspective on Development Branch, Division for Social Policy and Development of UNDESA at Division for Social Policy and Development of DESA from United States Moderator

Thank you for sharing this very innovative initiative. It is an excellent example of repurposing urban and rural spaces through a participatory design process in order to address social problems. It could serve as a model that could be adapted to the specific needs and circumstances of other countries.

Elif Yasemin Azaz • Volunteer at Architecture For All Association of Turkey from Turkey

Thank you for your comment. I agree that it is a very innovative and also effective method. Also it is easily adaptible. It could be a good model for other countries, too.

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New User

Every country that has invested in education and learning will be able to improve capacity building that will conduct to poverty reduction/ elimination,improving the capacity of getting better profit of the environment for a sustainable development, again empowering the cytizens and preparing better leaders , respecting gender equality, to achieve the MO and  built up a society with  more justice for all

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Harrison Cole

A poverty eradication planning criteria beginning with the farthest poverty stricken people  could be a very good innovation efforts in eradicating poverty; this means that since poor people know their problems, they could be the ones to present the best options and or priorities in addressing their poverty eradication needs instead of other people planning poverty eradication strategies for them.

Wenyan Yang • Chief of Social Perspective on Development Branch, Division for Social Policy and Development of UNDESA at Division for Social Policy and Development of DESA from United States Moderator

Thank you for your comment. The involvement of all stakeholders, particularly beneficiaries, in the planning, implementation, evaluation and follow-up processes is an essential element of a successful initiative.

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Dr Suma Parahakaran

An integrated approach as compulsory subject in schools

The streaming of subjects in schools is essential for students to learn a particular discipline. This enables them to progress in a field they are interested in. However, academics do not use integrated approaches by combining the information from all subjects (language, science, mathematics, geography, history). 

One of the sought after common commodity is water.. and we all know fresh drinking water sources are sparse and there is going to be an increase in population more so in the Asian countries in the next few years (According to UN statistics). How can the UN influence educational policies? I was part of the Human values based water education program. Many of us learnt valuable lessons and this has not been implemented widespread  in schools. Children need to know how important water is and what ways they can manage from technical, social,political and economic perspective. This approach is the "Integrated approach". It is different from interdisciplinary education and multidisciplinary education. These perspectives are never highlighted in education. These projects should include service learning as part of their work. This way, social and public processes can be mobilised. 

I propose that UN enables funding to include road shows and student participation  through  public advertisements through schools and not to few NGO's. This will ensure that there is a wider audience and the funding is not limited to one organisation or just a few. This will encourage civil participation and team work in the future generation. 

Schools are using a project based approach and they will welcome such openings by the UN. All the content that is received can be compiled online as Online Educational Resource and disseminated to as many institutions as possible.

Similar projects can be implemented in other areas such as technical and vocational schools. A district and country coordinator is enough to compile work done. Students who do well can become future leaders and at the same time they see value in serving society. 

 

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S ann • from United States

 

I agree with you that an “integrated approach” is essential in connection with a social, political and economic perspective.  However, an interdisciplinary approach is very similar and maybe used synonymously, in that it, too, teaches across the curriculum and disciplines.  Such a teaching methodology is imperative, as all coursework is interrelated and is valuable to the development of critical thinking and problem solving, which are essential skills needed to eradicate poverty.

ALEKSANDRS • Manager at LATVIJAS VEGA sia from Latvia

Morning dear Lady WENYAN YANG & *C.

" NEW EVIDENCE AND INNOVATIONS.............".

My personal opinion based on our time / Jesus Christ time / good examples. You see only freshest examples: 1/. 2017, March. The New York city many wealthy, J. Soros + Rockfeller & Co, asked the city mayor to work for the US Senate will adopte a new tax law that will require rich people /!/ to pay more money /!/ to the state budget ! OBJECTIVE: to reduce homelessness and poverty in the United States ! GLORIA al SEŅOR !

2/. 1994 - 2004. Riga / Latvia /. The " Charity int. " mission, the Mother Teresa of Calcutta mission, built a multifunctional house, where already 23 /!/ years actually and continuously going homelessness and poverty reduction process! GLORIA al SEŅOR !

We are all, each of us, responsible for our " BLUE HOME " future !

You see, in order to eradicate poverty in " OUR HOME ", from each of us need a little: TOLERANCE to the poor person, GOOD WILL  to change black social practices to good & WORK constantly and real from each of us !

Dear GOD our, bless the PERESTROYKA in Your " BLUE HOME ", on the planet Earth !

 

 

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S ann • from United States

What do you mean by "to change black social practices to good & work constantly..."?  Could you elaborate?

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S ann • from United States

What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology?  

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights promotes nondiscrimination in education.  The right to development and education are human rights.   Equity education is a proven measure and the best practice in eradicating poverty for a mass population, starting from preschool through the tertiary level (higher education).  Equity education is fair, robust and implements concepts found in Brown v. Topeka Board of Education with respect to funding, resources, and curriculum and instruction.  It is equally important that students have access to libraries, technology, and the arts.  Teaching should include research methodology, and coursework should take an interdisciplinary approach as well as offer experiential learning opportunities.   

It is imperative, too, that individual educational development plans, predominant foreign languages (English, French, Swahili, and Spanish), reasonable accommodations, and extracurricular activities are provided for all  students.   Education from preschool to community college should be free, higher education should be affordable (if not free), and predatory lending should be eradicated in higher education.  Job development and placement should be a policy mandate, particularly, for colleges and universities receiving governmental funding.  Students should be employed at the time of graduation.

The teaching staff and administration should be diverse and highly qualified, and require annual professional development training. The curriculum should be historically accurate, thorough, inclusive (eliminating implicit biases), and integrate domestic and world studies and citizenship.   Teaching and learning should be current and evolve. 

In addition to equity education, equal employment opportunities are central to the fight against poverty, which should be non-discriminatory and ensure equal pay, fair living wages with benefits, and safe working conditions.  For entrepreneurs, best practices should include the enactment and implementation of fair lending and credit laws as well as equitable contracts and fair taxes.

 [S1]

Ricardo Silva • from Brazil

I add to my comment the political question. The "elect" have an obligation to establish policies for the people and not for their interests.

A thin line separates the people's desire for a revolution. In Brazil we are experiencing a serious moment, with the revelation of institutional corruption, promoted by representatives of the people. There is a worldwide understanding that is against the death penalty. But politicians who use public money for personal enrichment condemn thousands of people every day for lack of public policy. The diversion of money that should keep fully functioning hospitals, daycare centers and schools with teaching materials and food, universities developing research (in agriculture, fishing, industry, medicine, life support, among others) is intended to finance comfort for those who do not need.

I am not here trying to provoke a revolution, but I want to encourage the people involved in the forum to speak to the United Nations that voters need to learn to vote and, above all, to demand definitive actions from their representatives. That the elect do not receive salaries and that their personal patrimony can only be increased by the fruit of their work or profession. Politics is not a profession. Almost all the problems in the world are linked to politics. The function of an elect is to serve the elector.

As long as there are dictators, such as in North Korea, or in other countries suffering from power-nascissism, we will always be under the shadow of a world-wide destruction, And the United Nations, will always be a school discussion club. We want to stimulate the internal democracy of each country and educate the people who choose the representatives. From then on, I believe that there may be survival to this planet. Too bad I will not be alive to witness this. But I maintain my previous position on the three points I have mentioned.

Romulo Paes de Sousa • Manager at UNDP from Brazil

This comment was also posted in e-Discussion 1 but we believe it has relevance for both discussions 1 and 2...

The Brazilian crisis is in the international spotlight due to the recent events. However, the same ingredients are present in many countries. For example, in the Latin American region, much of the economic adjustment discourse has explicitly recommended a sharp reduction in social investment. It is the bitter price to pay in the present for achieving a prosperous future. However, little is said in terms of the price and the burden for the most vulnerable. For countries facing that scenario the challenge is how to introduce a comprehensive, integrated and inclusive agenda like the SDGs, while many governments are moving towards reducing their levels of social protection.

The principles and the implicit public policy platform of the Agenda 2030 can operate as a normative reference for the debate on the economic crisis in the countries that are still fighting against recession or stagnation. It can be a moral reference for preventing regressive transitions in terms of social rights, well-being and equity.

Brazil’s Bolsa Familia has a strong international reputation as an effective conditional cash transfer programme. It has a significant influence in many a developing country. Once considered a fundamental feature of modern Brazil, today, during the worst political and economic crisis in decades, the future of the social protection system is becoming less certain. Powerful groups are calling for a reduction in social spending, questioning the generosity of the Brazilian social protection system, which increased consistently in the two previous governments led by the Workers Party.

The programme has had many well-known successes. It has nearly eradicated extreme poverty and reduced inequality –responsible for a reduction in the Gini coefficient from 0.571 (2014) to 0.517 (2015) and a 33% decline in extreme poverty in Brazil from 2004 to 2014 [1]. It also has important impacts on education and health, increasing attendance in school particularly for marginalized girls, reducing infant mortality. It is a powerful force for women’s empowerment, over 93% of card holders are women and has specific benefits for pregnant and lactating women.

The consistent decline in poverty and inequality is the result of a combination of economic growth and inclusive policies. The rise of employment (with a significant recruitment of low skill workers), the rise of the minimum wage (above the inflation) and the introduction of robust social assistance benefits produced the economic environment for the emergence of many. Other inclusive policies, such as incentives for poor and disadvantaged ethnic groups to access public and private undergraduate courses helped to elevate the possibilities to escape poverty.

Among the many achievements of Brazil’s social protection work, although perhaps less known, has also been its attention to data. Close monitoring of the programme has been a central tenant of programme delivery. The Cadastro Unico was created in 2001 to track socioeconomic data of low income families (with total monthly income up to 3 times minimum wage). It is a single registry database used to identify potential beneficiaries of Bolsa Familia and several other complementary programmes and it has been an essential feature for optimizing programme management. As the social programmes expanded across the country, extensive efforts were made to ensure all potential beneficiaries were reached –with over 1200 crews visiting homes across the country and even trekking deep into the Amazon by canoe.

Today, the Cadastro Unico is tracking the characteristics of over 26 million low income households, of which 14 million are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Familia. This database has been essential for optimizing programme management and monitoring implementation to ensure no one is left behind by the safety-net system. It has also enabled extensive monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the Bolsa Familia and other programmes. With such rigourous studies that included millions of cases, it is more difficult to deny the results. However, it cannot prevent significant changes in the social protection model of Brazil. It can come as a collateral effect of the macroeconomic policies (for example: massive cuts on social expenditure) or as the direct intervention on the social protection systems – for example: reducing coverage and the value of the cash transfer programmes.  

The Cadastro Unico will help to monitor social protection programmes as an essential tool in Brazil’s efforts to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. However it also offers an outstanding opportunity for Brazil to contribute to the SDG agenda. This database of 100 million people, with information regarding the implementation of 38 national programmes  provides the foundation for detailed evaluations of socio-economic impacts of policies and shocks at the household level over 16 years. It is a social scientist’s data-source dream. And, it has become more openly available, becoming one of the powerful tools of the data revolution that will usher in a more sustainable future.

Much of the data debate has so far focused on monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals, but big data can also be mobilized to simulate the direct impacts of alternative policy options to reduce poverty and inequality. For example, using microsimulation methods at the RIO+ Centre we have been exploring the effect of economic adjustments on the wellbeing of the poor population. Considering the persistence of the high levels of unemployment combined with the contraction of the social expenditure (reducing coverage and quality of the public provision of health and social assistance goods and services), RIO+ is testing the effect of the pervasive context on health indicators (under five years old mortality and morbidity, encompassing diseases related to poverty such as, malnutrition and diaorrhea). It also considered threats that more frequently affect vulnerable adult populations such as tuberculosis and violence. The primary question behind this work is if the favorable economic context combined with inclusive polices collapses what can be expected for the health of the population (and indicators for other SDGs) in the next 15 years?

[1]PAES-SOUSA, R and CAMPOS, BP (2017). Pobreza, desigualdad y políticas públicas: lecciones de Brasil. Paper presented at the FORO INTERNACIONAL ¿POR QUÉ PERSISTEN LA POBREZA Y LA DESIGUALDAD EN MÉXICO? – 28 and 29 March, 2017 (Puebla, Mexico)

Romulo Paes de Sousa, Director, UNDP World Centre for Sustainable Development (Rio+ Centre)

Laura Hildebrandt, Policy Specialist

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Viviane Martins

Good practices in pursuing an inclusive growth certainly benefits us all. Policy making is a tool that can be used. For example, every school (public and private) and workplace must have a 30-50 % of participants that are part of minority groups such as woman, individuals of color, foreigners, etc. Appoint someone to go check every other month or so, and enforce the law. Another example are laws for simpler paperwork process requirements. Too many qualified individuals do not pursue important paths due to the complex requirements needed for schools and workplaces. These complex requirements oftentimes are not necessarily needed once someone really stop to think about it. Another contributing policy making: a minimum decent six figure salary to every teacher at every public (and private) school. The insertion of these policies will certainly ensure more diverse and inclusive societies. Many new ideas are being brought forth as an evidence and innovation factor that addresses poverty in all its dimensions. Two ways to empower people living in poverty is through teaching emotional intelligence - how to deal with their own emotions- and community gardens. Learning how to deal with your emotions is an essential tool every human being needs. Too many times negative environments emerge simply because a person is having a bad moment and takes it out at someone else. It becomes a domimo-chain effect. By learning how to deal with emotions, an educated individual reacts in a proactive way, contributing to their social realms and work environments. The ultimate goal is to make such a course available not only through independent organizations, but to every high-school and university course work in America and worldwide. Other classes topics include: nutrition classes, meditation classes, cooking classes and personal financing classes. All these starting at a young age 6-16, and continually taken at college level. Additionally, another way to empower communities and individuals is through gardening. By building community gardens at underdeveloped and developing communities, children, adults and the elderly can learn the benefits of gardening. Gardening doesn't only bring tangible gifts, like fruits, vegetables and flowers; it also brings intangible life lessons, like the need to be patient, disciplined, nourishing, focused and caring in order to see the fruits of your work to come out with health and strength. It is part of having a successful life. With a community garden project, one can have access to land and natural resources while reducing the vulnerability to climate change and other extreme events.

ALEKSANDRS • Manager at LATVIJAS VEGA sia from Latvia

With pleasure, dear neighbor S ann from ?!

Personal opinion: " black social practice " is each societies practices, what born homelessness and poverty. Latvia is the super example of the " black practice " in 20th century. And here I shown only freshest examples the change " black " to the " good " on the our earth. The changes without revolutions and blood, but with real and continuous job.

So: there is the PERESTROYKA or simply AUDIT of societies with big job and there is the REVOLUTIONS or simply BLOODLETTING of our loved ones in " our homes " / I am personally the real victim of the " black " example in Latvia /.

I hope, I was understandable. Regards.

Note: I do not like to have any contacts with initials of a person. Thanks.

 

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S ann • from United States

@Aleksandrs, thanks for your clarification.  No worries on contacting you.

ALEKSANDRS • Manager at LATVIJAS VEGA sia from Latvia

Morning, dear Neighbor.

ALEKS.S3@INBOX.LV

God bless the PERESTROYKA of the United States !

Dr.Priya Prabhakar • Policy Reformation and Right to Development at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from India

1. What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology?

To pursue inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty delivering opportunities for all we should first liberate the world from its closed environment. We should not confine opportunities within what is officiated as general by the government and the restrictive access it enables to people through the stipulates.

One example could be got from the question is itself. “Creating employment” this pattern of facilitating employment by creating job opportunities will just ensure everyone in the population are delivered with opportunities that brings the number in data to a higher value. Whereas through facilitating employment opportunities for the individual personality of the individual we ensure that the population are delivered with productive opportunities that pays back the nation duly with its progress for the scopes it enabled for its citizen’s progress individually.

To include all eradicating poverty with wide and holistic growth, we need to reform our rule-based facilitations to principle based facilitation

What is the difference? Rule-based facilitation restricts opportunities within the stipulates formulated for the system whereas principle-based facilitation would enable people to take opportunities in a more open, and wide environment enabling the world to develop in a multidimensional and multifaceted way. Principle-based facilitation leads us to holistic development, what is referred as broad-based growth in this discussion

Factors of decent work like opportunities for work that are productive and deliver a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men.also nests here

When government reforms its functioning in line with the Universal Declaration of Human there can be no better practice or facilitation to eradicate poverty and all other social problems alarming the world.

Financial aid would better have its benefit and purpose served, if the aid is enabled for the contribution of an individual than being a mere fund of relief just for the fact that the recipient constitutes to needy. That doesn’t keep the flow of money progressive. When the needy are included for opportunities they earn their living through contributing some progress to the world, the agents, representatives or middlemen official who connect the citizen and government will stick to his duty without abducting the aid, there is a mindset behind this, when people are financially and resourcefully aided, it leaves the middlemen with a thought that when people could merely receive finance and resource as aid for being idle and for doing nothing, why don't we take a proportion for ourselves and distribute the rest to them. This activity even though is illegal the thought behind this cannot be renounced or refuted. So than directly enabling the needy with financial or material resources, when we enable them opportunities to earn their living, it's more justified and purposeful without loopholing the system. That is why the saying goes, “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime”

The same is the case to freebies enabled to the citizen. Providing freebies destroys the development prospects of the nation. Enabling everything for free and setting a life standards for individual without them doing anything to attain or accomplish it doesn’t help the world to put up with its development rate. We are ignoring to build and strengthen the foundation and directly finishing with the elevation, it wouldn't stand for long making all our efforts, time and resource investment go to no purpose. Development is when people work and earn their living for their individual ability. Helping poor is also when we include them for an facilitation within our reach to make them earn their living.  Superficial make up doesn’t make the reality to change, it just blinds the world to see the reality hiding it temporarily. 

Teleological analysis on and approach of world’s functioning is important for us to bring about real changes and reforms through our work and efforts.

So the best practise for an inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty delivering opportunities to all is what is principled in Universal declaration of human rights. Opportunities for the individual personality of citizens through the economic, social and environmental resources of the state regulating them with due reason, enabling them all freedom with conscience that lets them invest their individuality for fulfilling their duties to the world in which their full and free development of his personality was possible.

Here, education needs to individual specific that's directed to full development of the individual personality (that which nurtures the inherent skills, interest, ability and talent of individual) and employment needs to be for the individuality individual nurtured through their education enabling them full freedom with respect their working environment, working methods, remuneration, reasonable working hours, anchoring their activities to the purpose and vision of the organisation that ensures them their freedom and a standard of living adequate for their well-being, needs and emergencies.

A world like this is principled-based that includes all for purpose without any stipulative limitations or restrictive rule that authoritatively commands a single specific means and dimension for the entire living and working of the world, scoping to exclusion of one kind or the other. 

munenemwedi
Hubert Kabasele Muboyayi Kalonji • Medical officer at Far East Rand Hospital from South Africa

1. What are good practices in pursuing inclusive, broad-based growth that eradicates poverty, delivers opportunities for all, including through creating employment and decent work opportunities and ensuring access to financial services and technology? 

We need first a strong commitment from policy-makers and from country leaders. They should de committed to good governance, to peace, and to the well-being of their people. All programmes should be focused on poverty alleviation.

Second, education and health should be prioritised. Countries from Northern Africa have significantly improved their life expectancy through the empowerment of women. They significantly increased their budget for education to drastically decrease the level of illiteracy that was mostly affecting women. Educated women could better take care of their children and family. Decreased childhood mortality and improved children's and  health status also means more children at school, more productive and empowered workforce available at the country level at the latter stages.  

Third, tackling diseases that affect the work force and impoverish the population. HIV was taking a heavy toll on the South African population. Significantly decreasing the available workforce, killing most of the affected children, and impoverishing households. Children had to leave school because of lack money or because they had to take care of their sick parents. A national programme was put in place since 2004 for delivery - free of charge - of antiretrovirals to eligible patients (all HIV+ patients irrespective of the CD4 or concomitant co-morbities from mid-2016) for preventing the transmission of HIV especially from mother to offspring,  and for empowering people living with HIV.  This programme has significantly improved the Southafrican life expectancy, has allowed millions of sufferers to go back to work and has definitely stopped the impoverishment of people living with HIV and relative, because they don't pay for the consultation, laboratory and radiological exams, as well as for the treatment. Their children can carry on with their study thus, getting the knowledge they will to get better jobs.   South Africa host the largest number of HIV+ individuals  ( about 7 million people are affected by this disease) and the largest antiretroviral program (more than 3 million HIV+ patients are receiving ART in South Africa). 

 

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Serik Tokbolat • Representative to the United Nations at Baha'i International Community's United Nations Office from United States

"What are ways in which opportunities have been expanded to empower persons living in poverty through participation in political, economic and public life?”

We must be clear that poverty will never be eradicated until structural deficiencies such as corruption and inequalities of resources and opportunity are meaningfully addressed at the governmental level. This does not mean, however, that local communities are incapable of taking ownership over their own social and economic development.

In this regard, my organization, the Bahá’í International Community, has seen the vital importance of “collaborative capacity” – including the ability of a population to come to consensus on values and priorities, to forge a shared vision of the future, to generate volition and commitment to a common line of action – in the empowerment and mobilization of community members. The following narrative illustrates a few aspects of this process of summoning the common will.

Youth, Mentorship & Sugar: Power and Development in the Village Square

The Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education is an NGO dedicated to helping young people become “promoters of community well-being.” Central to its activities is the Education for Development program, which seeks to develop spiritual, material, and social capacity in 12 to 15-year olds and – crucially – to help them tutor other young people and to accompany them as they engage in social action and community service.

The program was initially introduced in a variety of rural communities and, through successive cycles of action, reflection on action taken, and modification, matured to the point where a core group of participants was able to mentor those younger than themselves. Promising new patterns of interaction and association started to take root and expectations were high. But as the first cohort of participants began to age, one by one, they began to leave the villages, leading to stagnation and even decline in the programs.

Conversations with community members revealed that once finished with schooling, young people struggled to find work that would allow them to support themselves and their families. Though they were strongly committed to advancing their home communities, the villages’ economic base had eroded to such a degree that emigration, often to neighboring Thailand or Vietnam, was seen as the only path to a viable livelihood.

Realizing that progress could not be sustained unless these realities were addressed, the programs’ coordinators convened a series of meetings, open to all, in the villages. Seeking steps that could be taken to become more economically self-sustaining, the discussion came to focus on one central question: what goods or services had the villages previously provided for themselves but now imported? Responses were many and wide-ranging. But consultations eventually converged on a form of raw sugar that had once been produced from local crops but had been largely abandoned when refined white sugar became a symbol of status and success.

United around the vision of enabling more young people to remain in the villages, community members established rudimentary cooperatives dedicated to the production of sugar through local materials and labor. The efforts began modestly and not all proved viable. But several became self-sustaining and gradually came to supply the needs of most local residents. In some cases capacity grew to the point where surpluses could be sold to neighboring areas, generating profits which were placed into a common community development fund.

Significant “cooperative infrastructure” had, by this time, been built by the participation of growing segments of inhabitants in the youth programs and the co-ops. The villages were increasingly able to come to consensus about how these funds should be used, and small but focused projects in agriculture, health and education were initiated. The scope and sophistication of these initiatives gradually grew as the ability to generate shared commitment to achieving them increased. And means were created for growing numbers of young people to support themselves in their home communities – a key requirement for the propagation of the program into the future.  

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Rodrigo Gouveia

I would like to address, mainly, the first question of delivery opportunities for all, particularly regarding the role of co-operatives in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. My remarks are on behalf of the International Co-operative Alliance, a NGO in consultative status with the UN ECOSOC.

Co-operatives are owned and democratically controlled by their members, that amount to more than 1 billion worldwide. They secure the livelihoods of more than 250 million people by providing decent jobs and/or being their main source of income. They are a powerful force in the economy of many countries with combined annual revenues of more than USD 2.5 trillion.

Co-operatives are values-based and people-centered enterprises that can be major contributors to eradicating poverty, providing food security and decent employment, ensuring gender equality and women empowerment, protecting the environment and to implementing many other SDGs.

Several characteristics of co-operatives make them particularly adept to provide opportunities for all, without discrimination and leaving no one behind:

  • Membership is open and voluntary, allowing the participation of otherwise excluded groups in different contexts (e.g. women, low-income populations, indigenous people, people with disabilities, etc.);
  • Members are owners but not investors, which allows co-operatives to provide goods and services that fit the needs and aspirations of members without the expectation of profit maximization;
  • Rooted in local communities means that co-operatives don’t de-localize and that the benefits generated by their activity stay in those local communities;
  • Direct ownership improves overall participation and democratization of citizens, opening opportunities in other spaces outside the co-operative movement.

Examples of the work co-operatives are doing to advance the SDGs can be found in the online platform ‘Coops for 2030’ (www.coopsfor2030.coop).

Given co-operatives’ vocation to include people in a democratic and non-discriminatory way, we believe that these should be highlighted as good practices and, as much as possible, they should be disseminated, incentivized and reproduced.

Rodrigo Gouveia

Director of Policy

International Co-operative Alliance

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Fran McCrae • Policy Manager at International Co-operative Alliance from United States

Co-operative enterprises exemplify many good practices for inclusive growth that can be used to eradicate poverty and deliver opportunities to all.

Co-operatives offer local solutions to local problems, being enterprises rooted in their communities and people-centred. Their open and voluntary membership principle not only helps ensure that no one is left behind, but also that the co-operatives’ activities can achieve the scale necessary to meet the needs of its members.

Because co-operatives are driven by people rather than only profit, they can provide basic services in communities that other companies do not consider good investments. For example, energy co-operatives established by community members are helping to achieve rural electrification, and water co-operatives are providing safe drinking water and water treatment services to remote populations.

Co-operatives can also provide sources of decent work, either by direct employment or by providing a space through which people (such as producers or artisans) can organise their work. Co-operatives are becoming an important means for those in the informal economy to transition to the formal economy, and thus secure their livelihoods. Because co-operatives enshrine economic, social, and environmental sustainability in their DNA and in their operations, they prove resilient in times of crisis and grow in a way that ensures longevity rather than a race to the highest profit margin, and are therefore better structured to resist stresses that could eliminate jobs.

Sherna Alexander Benjamin • Founder/Executive Director at O.A.B.I.: Organization for Abused and Battered Individuals from Trinidad and Tobago

Equality, when all citizens have access to the same services, and the wealth of the nation is distributed fairly and economies diversify areas of their economy. Provide funding for agricultural projects directly to civil society organisations. Have ease of access to science, technology, engineering and mathematics classes for all. Establish schools for young girls who dropped out of school due to pregnancy.

Within Trinidad and Tobago, while there are a variety of social assistance programmes many times the deserving do not get to use the services, poverty reduction has not been a top priority for past government administrations, the present administrations is reaching out and seeking partnerships to develop and establish poverty eradication programmes. 

Social issues cannot be individually addressed as many social issues intertwine or interconnect with other social issues. example, where there is poverty one may also find issues of domestic violence, poor health, illiteracy, social exclusion, discrimination, abuse, mental health challenges, crime and criminal activities and economic deprivation.

While looking at poverty eradication is a great initiative it must not be studied in a silo. 

Sherna Alexander Benjamin

Executive Director

O.A.B.I.: Organisation for Abused and Battered Individuals

Trinidad and Tobago

abubaker rashed • member at Society Development Association in Nubia from Egypt

Proposal submitted to the discussions ....

Concepts must be developed into
Work more realistically
Follow up and supervision clearly
To implement programs in poor countries
And achieve better results
Cooperation with a view to the success of programs
Governments of the States concerned
International organizations and their regional offices
And companies that offer community responsibility programs
And civil society organizations
And interested individuals

Challenges:
Develop Common to all parties strategy for Development and partnerships
Economy and Employment
Education
Healthcare
Migration
Environment
Rule of Law - Democracy - Human rights
Disaster Risk Reduction - Preparedness
Education policy
Environment protection
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development
Mitigation of the effects of climate change
Human rights (incl. Women's rights)

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Harnessing the potential of science for sustainable development in Africa. Promoting quality scientific solutions and shape and improve the daily lives of all people has been a long - standing priority of UNESCO, stemming from the belief that science is a main driver of peace and sustainable development. This was reaffirmed by the recognition of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in the recently adopted 2030 Agenda.

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Julie LaPalme • Director of Programming at Co-operative Housing International from Canada

The global housing deficit is a chronic multi-generational problem and represents a huge challenge for global actors in housing. There remains an enormous gap, in both the developed and the developing world, between the need for decent, affordable housing and its availability. This gap cannot be filled by market forces in the way that the prices of commodities are determined, for example, because absent non-market intervention, the price of housing is largely determined by the one factor of production whose supply is fixed, land, and where the land is located.

So how do we best deliver a non-market intervention? There are different ways that have been tried. Direct state intervention through the delivery of “public” housing was a noble policy goal in the 20th century. And in large measure it has failed. It has failed to create communities, it has failed in many instances even to house people safely and it has failed physically and ethically. These failures have come to be recognized by policy makers and we are seeing significant demolition and replacement programs as a result.  Meanwhile, the number of people living in slums is headed towards 1 billion in developing countries, which are adding an estimated 70 million new urban residents each year.  

The supply and demand gap for decent, safe housing endures in all regions of the world. Simply delivering more market housing can help on the supply side, but not where there is no effective demand for market-priced housing from those whose housing need is the most urgent. To meet this need, a values-based rather than a price-based solution is required. Co-operative housing could have a large-scale role to play in providing the solution.        

The potential for co-operative housing as a non-market alternative is enormous. But it is a potential that remains to a large extent unrealized, although there are countries that have achieved positive, large-scale housing outcomes through the co-operative model. Co-operatives can play a large role in the delivery of housing solutions. 
 

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Science for a sustainable Future.   Creating knowledge and understanding through science equips us to find solutions to today's acute economic, social and environmental challenges and to achieving sustainable development and greener societies. As no one  country can achieve sustainable development alone, international scientific cooperation contributes, not only to scientif knowledge but also to building peace. UNESCO works to assist countries to assist countries to invest in science, technology and innovation (STI), reform  their science systems and to building a capacity to monitor and evaluate performance through STI indicators And Statistics taking into account the broad range of country - specific contexts etc

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Balu • from India

Thank you for starting the e-Discussion in support of the the implementation, follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. My remarks are on behalf of the International Co-operative Alliance Asia and Pacific. Next week we will have the 10th Asia Pacific Co-operative Minister’s conference in Hanoi (April 18-21). The focus of the conference is on “Creating Stronger Partnerships between Governments and Co-operative Stakeholders in achieving the SDGs. The UN sees the co-operative sector as an important player in meeting the SDGs, especially in areas such as poverty, hunger, quality education, decent work, responsible consumption and production (food security), gender equality, and in building strong institutions. The UN has recognized co-operatives as an important actor in its quest to achieve ‘inclusive economic growth and job creation’ within the SDGs (Means of Implementation of the Global Partnership). Ahead of the conference we had consultations with our members in South-East Asia, South Asia and the Gulf countries. The uniting voice from the Regional Consultations was that the success of in addressing member needs relies altogether on healthy member-based cooperatives, as well as good governance, but expansion and   advancement must be grounded in communities and further supported by strong and strategic partnerships with respective governments and international and national organizations. Partnership is considered crucial in this day and age. Co-operatives offer an alternative model  as sustainable enterprises, which values are to be shared and recognized by their multiple stakeholders.  Through a questionnaire we sought feed-back from our members on what they would facilitate co-operative development. While the results are being analyzed, some findings are –  members are mindful and keenly aware of the need to involve women and youth,  and have developed specific programs to empower women and youth in their respective countries; establishment of a good framework, which enables co-operatives to do their business without less government regulation; enabling environment where co-operative laws and policies are continuously reviewed and renewed to make them more enabling and favorable; and capital formation and mobilization in co-operatives through creative ideas that could generate socially constructive capital in co-operatives.   

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Promoting innovative outcomes to local problems ensuring long - term global sustainability sound use energy are two sides of a single problem that touch issues of central importance to Africa: poverty alleviation and access to a reliable affordable energy supply. No development can occur without access to basic energy services, and unequal access to electricity results in social inequality. UNESCO plays a catalytic role in promoting comprehensive. holistic approaches to energy  climate change and sustainable development in its contribution to UN efforts UNESCO launched" solar electrification of rural schools" project in five sub - Saharan countries that also includes the use of modern ICT tools. By using locally available address energy resources, this initiative addresses energy poverty while improving educational capacity and quality. Education is the the first step. If STI are to be used to their full potential over the coming decades, young girls and boys will need to master science, technology, engineering and mathematics today.

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Tony Phillips

Energy is key in South America too. The transition to sustainable and renewable energy has been stalled by various sectors. The most obvious is the mining sector (not just fossil fuels but also mining dependent on subsidised fossil fuels) such as gold and aluminium for example -- but delays also come from Industrial agriculture mainly due to transport issues (diesel for farm machinery and for trucks but also for bunker diesel for long distance shipping (river and sea)). Examples in south america include the hydroelectrical complex around Vale in Brazil and various smelting operations (Aluar in Argentina) (Barrick in Chile Argentina for Gold etc...)

In South America the Multilateral Development Banks (CAF, I(A)DB and FONPLATA) are driven by agendas that pre-date the Sustainable Development Goals. Their agendas rarely even took into account the issues of the previous 15 years of Millenium Development Goals which is one of the reasons that South America retains some of the record levels of inequality across the planet.

Development in South America is driven by IIRSA. While most of the IIRSA projects are East-West cross Andes transport corridors for Brazilian (bulk) production -- to access Asian markets via Pacific ports, IIRSA's H.Q. is in Buenos Aires (in the IDB building). IIRSA maintains a development agenda which consist of Priority Integration Projects (Agenda de Proyectos Prioritarios de Integración or API). This is done via the UNASUR council for Infrastructure and Planning for South America COSIPLAN, Consejo Suramericano de Infraestructura y Planeamiento  but the projects it selects still tend to be associated with corporate / government agendas of growth and are typically the opposite of sustainable.

Energy is not just about electricity but South America has one of the best success stories in renewables from mega dams now we need to repeat this success (or improve on it) with electricity from other renewables. This will mean removing subsidies on fossil-fuels especially for mining and industrial agriculture (social subsidies on gas heating and electricity in the slums are OK) but just by removing subsidies from fossil fuels will free up that money to make 100% of energy renewable, starting with 100% electricty from renewables (this will mean not supporting coal-fired plants any more). South American also needs to integrate the continent's electrical systems (something I have referred to as UNASUR-GRID but something the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) has been talking about for forty years now.

We need to ramp up finance now but we'll need those subsidy dollars from the fossil-fuel sectors and we'll need them now. ECLAC/CEPAL needs to align their priorities with sustainability with no fossil fuels. We cannot continue to allow the bulk of the investments to go into the non-renewable sectors. IIRSA needs to go green or it needs to go and CEPAL needs to reflect the agenda of sustainability or simply stp talking about it.

'Development' as we now know will regress (in a disastrous way) unless we deal with climate change now. There are two short-term horizons (2020 and 2030) both within the 15 year plan that we call the Sustainable Development Goals.

The poor in South America are already dying more frequently due to climate change, especially marginal slums subjected to flooding tragedies. We know this will continue and will ge worse, what we need to do is to prevent it from spiralling out of control. This agenda apples not just to our region (UNASUR) but in many parts of Asia (Bangladesh for example) and many parts of Africa too. By 2100 climate disasters will be global but if we deal with fossil fuels now it might be globally manageable. If not the migration this will cause will cause more wars and it will already be too late to deal with fossil fuels.

We need to do that now! That will mean re-orienting the use of energy (not just the means of production of Energy) -- we need to attack demand with supply (100% renewable supplies). To do this we shall have to eliminate unnecessary mining (export gold mining for example) and reconverting industrial agriculture. It can be done but only just ... CEPAL/ECLAC needs to get started.

It cannot be done just with our current institutions for financing development. Whatever happened to the Banco del Sur? It cannot be done with Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) in Vaca Muerta, nor by exploiting bitumen/heavy crude from the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela or Brazilian Pre-sal some of which is at depths of 7Km.

Time to align our agendas to a rapid switch from fossil fuels now!

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Top 10 (IoT) The Internet of Things technologies for 2017 - 2018. Discussion Topics - Which technologies enterprises must master to unlock the full potential of the IoT. - When new skills are required in the age of IoT. - Why managing vendor and technology risk will be vital to successful to IoT deployments. The Internet of Things (IoT) will demand a wide range of new technologies and skills, including new hardware platforms, new networks, new operating systems, new types of high - volume data processing tools, and new standards and ecosystems. The Top 10 of Technologies organizations include UNESCO must master to excel in the age of (IoT) the Internet of Things. Hosted by Nick Distinguished Analyst

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

UNESCO's action for Africa will focus on two major areas during the medium term period 2014 - 2021 Building peace by building inclusive, peaceful and resilient societies. Building institutional capacity for sustainable development and poverty reduction. UNESCO is expected to implement a stronger and better targeted strategy to build peace, eradicate poverty, and achieve inclusive sustainable development by improving the quality, equity and relevance of education, by harnessing science, technology and innovation to boost development and build related capacities, by mobilizing the heritage and creative industries for culture and development, by promoting freedom of expression, and by using ICTs for development, gender equality and peace and citizenship education.

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ESD).    Education for Sustainable Development allows every human being to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future. Education for Sustainable Development means including key sustainable development issues into teaching and learning, for example, climate change, disaster risk reduction, and sustainable consumption. It also requires participatory teaching and leaning methods that motivate and empower learners to change their behavior and take action for sustainable development, Education for Sustainable Development consequently promotes competencies like critical thinking, imagining future Scenarios and making decisions in a collaborative way. Education for Sustainable Development requires far - reaching changes in the way education is often practised today. UNESCO is lead agency for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014)

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Jacira Werle Rodrigues

I much appreciate to be invited to contribute with ideas of how reduce poverty worldwide. I have elaborated some points that I believe are important to be considered. Please see below:

  • Create human capabilities. Enhance the human capital development (health and education) is crucial, but not enough; other aspects need to be covered in parallel;
  • Provide environmental conditions to creation of prosperity (which could include: improving infrastructure, reducing corruption, offering a supportive atmosphere to innovation);
  • Empowering and engaging people (maybe fostering programs such as cash transferring, which allows people to choose what is essential; re-creating community groups);
  • Create cooperatives (developing target groups; such as crafting, farmers, etc; who could increase their product value);
  • Provide access to microcredit (entrepreneurs and innovators could develop their ideas);
  • Improving tax regulation systems to charge extra over huge fortunes and business which currently do tax evasion (eg. Apple);  
  • Find pathways to collaboratively share experiences (such as this platform is).

Hopefully some of these suggestions could be implemented and be able to effectively assist reducing poverty and income inequality.

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IAFN • from Canada

Advances in food security, including increased supply due to improvements in food safety and production, will have relevant impacts on a much larger number of SDGs than simply Goal 2, including those related to ending poverty, bettering public health, and fostering economic growth.

Agriculture, indeed, constitutes the basis of the livelihoods of many of the most vulnerable populations and is the backbone of rural economies. Thus, investing in initiatives that create jobs, stimulate trade and minimize barriers to markets, and generate increased income by enhancing food value chains, including through the development of local and sustainable supply chains and services. In this context, investments should be focussing on tools and capabilities to help farmers, households, and communities to prepare for, address, and recover from economic, environmental, and political shocks. Useful information, knowledge sharing, communications and outreach programs and policies across the supply chain from producers, with special focus on smallholder and women farmers, to consumers will be needed too. In order to improve access to natural resources, technologies and best practices that respect stewardship for future generations should be fostered. As for the promotion of agriculture, wise management of scarce water through improved irrigation and storage technologies, combined with development of new drought-resistant crop varieties will be key. 

Furthermore, climate change challenges are now calling for increased investment in research and development of new technologies.Whilst research is required to identify further suites of mitigation and adaptation practices applicable to specific production systems and environments, innovation and technology that can help farmers increase their production, improve their livelihoods and steward better their production resources are also essential.

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Irmgard Radefeldt

In our opinion, working for 30 years in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia and Dominican Republic, poverty is the result of a lack of values present in generations of society, where a pattern of inequality and lack of solidarity generates poverty that has spread with ignorance and unconsciousness. The same lack of values is what creates an attitude of seeing others as unequal, leading to discrimination, corruption, violation of human rights, disregard for gender rights and the denial of access to resources.

Any strategy aimed at poverty eradication, should focus on raising awareness through education on values, and secondly, in reducing limiting patterns and beliefs that enables those experiencing poverty to experience a state of vulnerability and scarcity. With this it is encourage people who are aware, self-sufficient, caring, honest, responsible and generous individuals, - who value themselves and as they overcome and improve their economic condition, will also help others to overcome.

Régia Estevam Alves • PhD student and researcher in land degradation and desertification. at University Nova de Lisboa from Portugal

We can see models of poverty eradication in both developed and developing countries, such as social policies that guarantee access to quality education, housing, health and employment.

 

- Education:

In terms of educational models we can follow the example of Finland in which the educational system is mostly public and of quality. It is possible to think of an educational system like the one of the Filandia for countries that present poverty or misery.

- Housing:

If we succeed in eradicating corruption by directing public money to use for the benefit of society, I think it is possible to invest in environmentally sustainable housing systems free of charge for people who have no money to buy a house or facilitate low cost for poor people, but that can  to pay a low amount of financing a home. There are several such examples in countries different  and can be applied in poor or extremely poor countries. In Brazil, for example, which is a developing country, there are in some regions of the country donations of housing by the government to the population in extreme poverty. This is a way of making use of public money for the benefit of society.

- Health:

Although Brazil is a developing country, the public health system called the 'Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS' is an example of how to enable the population to access health care free of charge and without paying anything. SUS in many regions of Brazil works better than the private system. It is a totally free health system that can be perfectly applied in other poor countries.

 

- Jobs / Work:

It is necessary to eradicate slave labor.  To creat more jobs and also improving working conditions in many places in the world. In this regard, I think that investing in technical education/technical courses is also important because it is a way to professionally qualify people to get into the job market. In rural areas, what we witnessed in the last decades was rural exodus. Many people who lived in rural areas had to move to the city in search of work because they were replaced by machines. This has generated and still generates poverty. It has been proven that large-scale agriculture such as monoculture cultivation has not eradicated hunger, but has enriched and continues to enrich large-scale producers. In addition to depleting natural resources. Therefore, in rural areas I think that the land has to be better distributed fairly, egalitarian to all. So that small farmers can get government investments to produce in their land without having to sell it or abandon it. It is necessary urgent to reformulate the models of agricultural production, because on a global scale we already have more than 25% of the degraded  soils best. The current agricultural model is not environmentally sustainable and does not eradicate poverty. There is a need to invest more in local small-scale farmers, as this creates more jobs, better quality food, fair prices and less degradation of natural resources.

Régia Estevam Alves • PhD student and researcher in land degradation and desertification. at University Nova de Lisboa from Portugal

We can see models of poverty eradication in both developed and developing countries, such as social policies that guarantee access to quality education, housing, health and employment.

- Education:

In terms of educational models we can follow the example of Finland in which the educational system is mostly public and of quality. It is possible to think of an educational system like the one of the Filandia for countries that present poverty or misery.

- Housing:

If we succeed in eradicating corruption by directing public money to use for the benefit of society, I think it is possible to invest in environmentally sustainable housing systems free of charge for people who have no money to buy a house or facilitate low cost for poor people, but that can  to pay a low amount of financing a home. There are several such examples in countries different  and can be applied in poor or extremely poor countries. In Brazil, for example, which is a developing country, there are in some regions of the country donations of housing by the government to the population in extreme poverty. This is a way of making use of public money for the benefit of society.

- Health:

Although Brazil is a developing country, the public health system called the 'Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS' is an example of how to enable the population to access health care free of charge and without paying anything. SUS in many regions of Brazil works better than the private system. It is a totally free health system that can be perfectly applied in other poor countries.

 

- Jobs / Work:

It is necessary to eradicate slave labor.  To creat more jobs and also improving working conditions in many places in the world. In this regard, I think that investing in technical education/technical courses is also important because it is a way to professionally qualify people to get into the job market. In rural areas, what we witnessed in the last decades was rural exodus. Many people who lived in rural areas had to move to the city in search of work because they were replaced by machines. This has generated and still generates poverty. It has been proven that large-scale agriculture such as monoculture cultivation has not eradicated hunger, but has enriched and continues to enrich large-scale producers. In addition to depleting natural resources. Therefore, in rural areas I think that the land has to be better distributed fairly, egalitarian to all. So that small farmers can get government investments to produce in their land without having to sell it or abandon it. It is necessary urgent to reformulate the models of agricultural production, because on a global scale we already have more than 25% of the degraded  soils best. The current agricultural model is not environmentally sustainable and does not eradicate poverty. There is a need to invest more in local small-scale farmers, as this creates more jobs, better quality food, fair prices and less degradation of natural resources.

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CRISTINA DIEZ SAGUILLO

What are ways in which opportunities have been expanded to empower persons living in poverty through participation in political, economic and public life?

I would like to present a project that creates opportunities to empower persons living in poverty through participation not only in political, economic and public life but also in the production of knowledge.

The project called Fourth World People’s University was created by Joseph Wresinski in 1972 and since then ATD Fourth World organizes People’s Universities in a dozen countries, as well as in eight regions throughout France.

For decades, the Fourth World People’s University has enabled people who live in poverty to meet and think together with academics, practitioners, and members of the public. People’s University involves regular meetings and dialogues that bridge the gap between people who have little or no other place for their voice to be heard and people who have power but have limited access to the real-life experience of poverty.

People Universities are unique in two ways. First, the main participants are people living in extreme poverty, together with others who live and work in solidarity with them. Secondly, while other people’s universities teach knowledge, the Fourth World People’s University produces knowledge. This production of knowledge is created by the interactions among participants from diverse social backgrounds

People’s University produces different kinds of knowledge, first practical knowledge: participants learn to communicate with people from social backgrounds other than their own. In addition, different kinds of knowledge are merged. On a given subject, each participant contributes a unique perspective—a result of their own life experiences and point of view. This leads to collective thinking about the subject, based on multiple perspectives. The subject might be health care, exile, dignity, or something else. By looking at this subject through the lens of poverty, we avoid unrealistic theories. The knowledge created is new, because it emerges from confronting many subjective perceptions, including those that are rarely, if ever, shared. And when this knowledge is truly understood, it can lead to a transformative personal experience for all those involved. Developing this knowledge together gives all the participants a stake in ensuring that it contributes to social change. In addition, the process of developing knowledge together contributes to overcoming poverty.

So the People’s University produces knowledge that can transform society as a whole and it serves as a catalyst for action by ATD Fourth World. It contributes to public advocacy work with policy makers, to grassroots projects, and also to engaging people who decide to make a commitment to overcoming poverty.

Finally, creating this kind of a People’s University is no easy feat. There are conditions required, which are very demanding. It should be emphasized that one of the most important conditions for people in poverty to participate successfully in People’s University is the preservation of their free agency. It is also important for everyone participating to be able to choose freely to work toward overcoming poverty.

For more information about Fourth World People’s University: http://www.atd-fourthworld.org/what-we-do/participation/peoples-univers…

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Yolanda Jinxin Ma • Specialist, Communications & Partnership, UN Social Impact Fund at UNDP from Thailand

Re innovation:

UNDP has been working on using innovative ways to eradicate poverty and also monitor progress.

In China, a data-driven report and visulaization was published late last year to measure poverty. http://www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/…

In Bangladesh, a crowd-funding campaign was launched to set up virtual classrooms to transform unemployed youth to freelancers by teaching them basic IT skills http://www.bd.undp.org/content/bangladesh/en/home/ourwork/youth/YES/

Re empowerment:

UNDP has launched UN Social Impact Fund that focuses on impact investment, which aims to bring in private sector to provide financial and acceleration support to SDG-aligned enterprise. This would help them scale and also benefit the ecosystem in developing countries. (Enclosed the brochure for more information)

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

The utmost new evidence from India to day is the launch of Digital payment systems called;BHIM,Mr.Bhimrao Ambedkar was the pricipal architect of Indian constitution.This ,the constitution of India,had all the fundamental democratic systems adopted by the founders of UN.

The Bhim uses digital payment technology,and with the Social security system called-ADHAR-has the thumb impression in the data drives.

The poor will be given what ever are made available out of government schems directly from the shop,with out the middle man or the medium of currency as a transaction or a transition from one to the other.

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Pradip Dey

Dear All,

Good day!

The following points are being made in personal capacity and not in official capacity.

In the article, Justin Gillis analysed the effect of rising temperatures on food security as depicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Although some regional advantage may be observed, in general, the effect is that of reduction of crop production to the tune of about  2% in each decade for the rest of this century as against raising demand oabout 14% in the corresponding period. This would result in spirilling food prices. Ultimately, it will hit hard the poorer section of the globe.

 

Here I can add from my practical experience that terminal heat is problem for wheat productivity and the same has already affected wheat yield in many parts of the world. Thus Justin Gillis is correct in his conclusion above.

There is a need for urgent effort to tackle this situation. Although efforts are on in many countries, the requirement is much more that what is presently being done. Justin Gillis has called for a far more intensive — and expensive — adaptation plans.  However, I feel that both mitigation and adaptation plans need to be taken up to counter the challenge of global warming. Also public sensitization is an important ustect to create a vigilante enterprise for better result. Small steps with respect to household action plan also need to be generated and people need to be sensitized for the same.

Thanks and regards.

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Elena DANILOVA-CROSS • Programme Analyst at UNDP

In recent years, development policies have increasingly been linked to poverty reduction in most countries of the region. While it is important to focus on uni- and multidimensional poverty, there is a growing recognition that reducing just the level, width or breadth of poverty may not be a wholly satisfactory approach to poverty reduction, that is risk-informed.

Although the new emphasis has led to an increased attention on vulnerability, important questions about what we exactly mean by vulnerability, how we measure it, and how we should address it in development policies remains open: an individual can be vulnerable to falling below a threshold across several dimensions, such as health, food consumption and income, and across different time periods. Vulnerability - apart from accounting the poor -  also include people living on the edge. Consequently, it will always indicate a higher percentage of people who are vulnerable than who are poor. In other words, the set of poor will always be a subset within the broader set of the vulnerable.

Exiting poverty is not something that happens once and for all, people are frequently thrown back into poverty for a variety of reasons, often due to shocks. Alarmingly, reoccurring shocks of various nature are becoming a “new normal” in our contemporary world, as was discussed at the Istanbul Development Dialogue on risk and resilience (IDD- 2017) this March[1]. People vulnerable and at risk of poverty are thus naturally under threat of falling back into poverty. This, to some extent, is being reinforced in the Sustainable Development Goal 1, target 1.5: By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Having benefited over the years from relatively high levels of human development, the Europe and CIS region has itself been home to several shocks and crises. In Western Balkans recent natural disasters hit not just those who are living under the minimum subsistence level, but also those who are living above this level and could slip back into poverty. The violence in Ukraine and the refugee crisis resulting from the conflict in Syria have all had considerable development impact.

[1] http://www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/presscenter/events/2017/risk-and-resilience-istanbul-development-dialogues-2017.html

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Sakiul Morshed

Sakiul Millat Morshed, Executive Director, SHISUK ( A National NGO in Bangladesh)

Community Enterprise Approach to address Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A case study of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is in a deltaic plain of  major river basin, most of its lands are floodplain. The low elevation make deltas vulnerable to sea-level rise and other climate change effect.  Besides, Bangladesh is also experiencing sharp changes in rainfall patterns, droughts, late monsoons, recurring floods, and warm winters. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of Bangladesh and on the life and livelihoods of millions of poor farming communities.

On the contrary, Floodplains are robust and renewable resources. Through proper management of the floodplains; these can remain extremely productive and diverse.  Attempts have taken to protect Bangladesh’s floodplain resources from mismanagement and to ensure their equitable use, but these may not be adequate to cope with pervasive, systematic or surprise change associated with climate change. Establishment of resilient community based organizations (CBOs) is centered to adapt and sustainable management of the resources by the community in emerging climate change effects.

While on the one hand, public sector of poor developing countries mired by various difficulties in their willingness and capacity to perform their roles in community development, on the other hand it is difficult for community itself to come up with various resources to initiate development momentum or break development bottleneck on their own. Additionally as a member of civil society the NGO can play an active role to promote and mobilize opinions in shaping government policies and also assist community groups to participate on their own to play such roles.

In the case of SHISUK’s Daudkandi model[1], the NGO not only helped utilizing an extremely under used local resource by creating community ownership over its use and realizing consequent economic benefits, but also brought together people, created solidarity among them, instilled some degree of transparency and accountability in management, assisted in accessing mainstream non-microcredit facility; and all this subsequently resulted in many significant side benefits as can be observed address several Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) and industrial development in a locality .  Such as          

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at community level

Goal 6: Sustainable management of water and sanitation;

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation;

Goal 13: Combating climate change;

 

The approach helps to establish self-esteem, mutual respect and togetherness within the society through facilitating more interaction and participation and to create a favorable environment for good governance. As a result the down-trodden, landless, rich and poor, local administration, community leaders, etc have the opportunity with equity in the participatory management process leading towards a sustainable socio-economic development.  This keeps an augmented atmosphere for better social tie and integrity.

By way of active involvement and practice and by teach-ins when required, the stakeholders became familiar with these concepts and workable apts.    Ability to cope with natural disasters such as storms, floods and droughts and adapt to ongoing processes resulting from climate change (e.g. loss of biodiversity, reduced rainfall and increased drought) has enhanced through the project, at both the household and wider community level. It undertakes adaptation and mitigation challenges in changing environments/climate through collective risk sharing, reduction of production cost, promotion of better marketing mechanism and sustainable management of their own resources. The positive social impacts of the project as outlined in the previous sections has improved communities’ abilities to respond collectively, whilst the economic gains the project brings has increased households’ resilience in facing these events

 

[1] The Community Enterprise Approach  for floodplain fisheries model popularly known as Daudkandi model has awarded National Gold Medal in 1999 by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of Bangladesh and the model has selected as one of the SAARC Best Practices for Attainment of the SAARC Development Goals in 2008 under the livelihoods category. https://www.google.com/search?q=SHISUK%27s+daudkandi+model&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b

 

For more information Pls watch the documentary. It was showed during CoP 21

Happy Rain  https://vimeo.com/147477943

password : pluie2015

 

 

 

 

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Victoria Kayser-Derenne • from Canada

Hello everybody.

Thanks to internet and new technologies, in recent years fews micro-credit companies, such as "Kiva", have enabled poor people to start their own businesses and work, thus ensuring decent work. This could include child care, micro-farms, grocery stores etc. This applies to countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. These are innovations to eradicate poverty. Other organizations directly train women from rural and poor communities, for design solar panels and engineering as in India with "Barefoot College". This enables them to ensure a decent future for their children and their families. These initiatives are evident and innovative in eradicating poverty and could be extended to larger populations. 

Unfortunately, in some countries or regions, internet access is reduced. From a Canadian point de view, for example, if the majority of Canadians have access to the internet, it is much more difficult for the poor and vulnerable populations of the North (Inuits and Native Canadians), which can hinder or even prevent innovative projects that the fight against poverty. Today, access to the internet is essential in all communities in order to fight poverty. The internet can help find resources, micro-credit communities, train online etc.

Kiva: www.kiva.org

Barefoot College: www.barefootcollege.org

ganlin ye • inventor at Retired senior engineer from China

Dear Moderater—Wenyan Yang and My friends

Thanks for the opportunity to enter into this important dialogue.

First of all, I ask you to forgive me, because I can only speak in simplified Chinese, will cause you trouble. Please also do not give up my speech. Thank you!

I am replying to the question: New evidence and innovations in poverty eradication efforts:Eradicate poverty by building a lot of Urine Toilet.

I hope you can pay your attention to this facts:"women can urinate standing".   Thanks!

全文如下:

用多建“小便厕所”的方法,开始“厕所革命”,消除贫困

当前贫困地区没有能力建足够的厕所,因此导致瘟疫和各种传染病频发;接着,疾病和和死亡又使这些地区更加贫困。这种恶性循环,只有通过 “厕所革命”来解决。因为这个革命的机遇的已经到来。我们第一要抓住,第二要推动。

 

一,当前厕所的不良现状:

一百多年的实践证明,现在的“以抽水马桶为核心的、由单一的‘大小便厕所’组成的厕所系统”是局限、低效、浪费、破坏生态的,并且是难建的;其后果是不仅使广大的贫穷和偏远地区因为不具备三网一厂(自来水网、下水道网、电网和污水处理厂)而难以建厕所,而且即使在发达地区(包括纽约在内)也同样因为占地等限制,导致女性、游客等人们常常饱受如厕难之苦和污染之累。

 

二,现在的“厕所革命”是要建立起 新式厕所网”:它应该符合“便民和可持续发展”的要求。它是小便厕所新大小便厕所按照统筹规划、因地制宜的原则而组成的合理配置的厕所系统。 [1]

(一),小便厕所

在它里面只设不需要每次小便后冲水的“免水冲小便器”,专供男、女士在此站立小便。

它易建、易管、建设快、也便于多建:它节资,建一个大小便厕所的经费可以建几个、十几个甚至几十个小便厕所;它占地面积小(无占地的困难);可建在人群之中、人行道、绿化带、保管站、加油站、过街天桥或通道、广场等地方;它只挂小便器既不需要挖坑也不需要筑台,很容易建;它拉到就能用、随时可撤走;

它节水、节电且环保:可以不用水冲、可不用下水道也不需要污水处理厂、卫生、无臭,尿液收集后可综合利用;

便民:有了它,第一,人们在路边每隔约50-200米就会发现一个小小的时尚、卫生的小亭,在这里可就近解决人们最急的、占如厕人次数85%以上的如厕问题;还有一些诸如女士的换衣、补妆、换卫生巾等隐秘之事,也可以在这里方便地解决;第二,用户小便无需上、下台阶,它是无障碍的;第三,在小便处的门上可设有“导厕牌”,指出最近的、(或在背街小巷的)“大小便厕所”的位置,人们只要多走几步路就能很容易地找到它,非常的方便。

有了它,将解决外出人们中80%以上的如厕(小便)问题;其它20%以下的如厕(大便和小便)问题在新大小便厕所解决。

(二),新大小便厕所

里面设有“大便器”和“免水冲小便器”,供人们大便和小便用。

一般说来只要有一个大便器,就可以做到大小便兼顾,就可称得上是“大小便厕所”。但是,“新大小便厕所”应该符合便民和可持续发展的条件,所以从这个角度考虑,里面还应该设有供男士和女士使用的“免水冲小便器”。

 

三,最新的科技成果为新式厕所网”系统提供了机遇

现在“厕所中有关小便的部分”的技术已经成熟,可立即进行实用推广,基本上能达到“以人为本和可持续发展”的目标。主要的有以下三方面技术:

(一),近年“免水冲小便器”加工、抗菌和除臭等方面的技术已相当成熟,达到了当前人们需要的卫生标准和可持续发展的需求,完全可以在“新小便厕所”和“大小便厕所”里使用。

(二),最新的科技成果—站立小便导流器(简称导流器)—它是“新小便厕所”得以推广使用决定性的支柱,为厕所革命提供了新的机遇和途径。

导流器是帮助人们(主要是女性)站起来小便(简称站起来)的工具,也可算是一种可移动的洁具,既可以在厕所里配备,也可以由使用者自备。

 

站起来小便是我们女性几千年来的梦想,现在有了导流器才得以实现。21世纪的十几年中,国际上各种导流器已发展有20多种,可想而知,使用它站起来小便的“先行女士”的人数正以指数增加。这说明,现在站起来已是一个不可逆转的发展趋势占人口一半的女性的如厕方式的改变,必将影响到社会的各方面,首当其冲的是厕所。导流器不仅确立了“小便厕所”在新式厕所网”里的主角地位,而且。确立了“小便厕位”在大小便厕所”里的主角地位。

 

(三),综合利用尿液的技术也已比较成熟。提取尿激酶、绒毛膜促性腺激素等粗品的小型生化工厂的门槛很低、整套精良设备约5万元人民币,便于多建。尿液或已经提取过物品后的剩余尿液,最终还可送到城市园林或农村肥田。再次综合利用尿液。

以上三项新技术及其生产现状已形成了“从小便离开人体以后的收集、加工和综合利用”这完整的一套系统,使 “新小便厕所”的建设工作可立即开展起来了。为新厕所建设达到“以人为本和可持续发展”的要求提供了新的机遇和途径。

 

四、两种“新小便厕所”的成功实例,给推广工作以强有力的支持

(一),在荷兰,克罗斯的小便厕所已经销售到各大洲。很受用户的欢迎。其缺点是它显得有些太暴露了,女士不太方便使用它;

(二),在中国,有个“男女通用站立小便处”。它是2005年西安市政府批准的试点。该小便处在多处摆放过,经过室内、室外、酷热爆晒、大雪冰冻、小孩攀爬和击打等考验,至今已经试点十一年多了,24小时开放,没有大修过。它于2011年被评为第11届世界厕所峰会最具特色公共厕所该小便处每天约有200人次使用,有固定的女性用户在此用导流器站立小便,也常有急了的女士来现学现会地使用;最值得重视的是用户对它的反映很好[3]:在174条留言中有41条是女性用户留下的,除开始时有5条是骂女性站起来的以外,全都是表扬它方便卫生、节能环保、希望政府多建的。这可能是得到最多用户称赞的厕所;另外,470多位先行女士榜榜员中,大多数是在它这里如厕而培养出来的。它不仅是一个称职的服务员也是一个宣传女性站起来的尽职的宣传员。

(三),在贫困地区,“小便厕所”可以立即推广

现在,节水的或免水冲的设施——大便器已有很多使用的实例,但在卫生、除臭和粪便的无害化处理方面都还有待进一步创新

可喜的是,当我们按照“新式厕所网”合理规划建设“小便厕所”以后,其好处是:第一,大多数人就近上了“小便厕所”,因而“大小便厕所”的用户将大大减少,因此其厕位和规模都将减少,因而建设“大小便厕所”的难度也将大大降低有利于其创新;

第二,大便器里的小便量将大大减少,常只伴随有一次的小便量,对粪便处理起来就方便多了。这一点也有助于大便器的创新;

所以,我建议,在贫困地区,现在就可以着手大规模地建设“小便厕所”,即可以最小的代价取得最大的成果。

谁先这样做谁就走在了厕所革命的最前前沿。

参考文献:

 [1] http://user.qzone.qq.com/369121565/blog/13414148622011WTO  论文 “从人类发展过去、现在和未来的角度,探讨厕所将何去何从?”;
[2] http://user.qzone.qq.com/369121565/blog/1469184159 女性正帮助小便器“翻身”占据主位 ;
[3] http://user.qzone.qq.com/369121565/photo/540b61bb-0a0c-482e-8b3a-58fe1d80f8ed/ 中的“小便厕所里的涂鸦”
[4] http://user.qzone.qq.com/369121565/blog/1400306554 从利民和环保的角度看厕所建设的可持续策略与步骤(一

谢谢!

叶甘霖

abubaker rashed • member at Society Development Association in Nubia from Egypt

I think it is good to establish an international partnership with companies that contribute to development

Promoting corporate responsibility to developing countries.

Organizing an international event of this partnership that presents programs for sustainable development to reduce poverty