Phase II: The Poverty-Environment Nexus

1 Jul - 31 Jul 2017
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Published on 25 April 2017 in UN Environment Management Group Nexus Dialogues

1) Poverty-Environment Evidence:

What examples can you share of the two-way links between multidimensional poverty and environmental degradation? What groups are affected by poor management of natural resources? How are the livelihoods of women and men living in poverty linked to: ecosystems and biodiversity; sustainable land management; oceans and water; climate change mitigation and adaption, and chemicals?  

2) PEN Mainstreaming:   

How are PEN approaches already being used and integrated into public policy making and investments? How are countries addressing the Poverty-Environment Nexus in different contexts to advance the SDGs? What tools and methodologies are being used to collect and use PEN data; inform national, sectoral and local planning; influence SD financing; and better coordinate PEN work across sectors?

3) PEN Partnerships:  

What partnerships are being used to reduce poverty and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways? How are governments, civil society, the private sector and international community working together at the local, national, regional and global level? What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated?

Comments (33)

Nik Sekhran • Chief of Profession, Sustainable Development Cluster, UNDP at UNDP from United States

Dear colleagues,

I am writing to invite your comments and participation for phase 2 of the online Environment Management Group Dialogue on the Poverty-Environment Nexus (PEN).

A series of four Nexus Dialogues, including joint online and in-person discussions, are being held in 2017. These Dialogues are designed to bring UN agencies and partners together to identify synergies and integrated approaches that advance the Sustainable Development Goals. It is only through such coherent and collaborative approaches that our efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda will succeed.

The first Nexus Dialogue was held in Geneva from 26-27 April, and the final Dialogue will be held during the UN Environment Assembly in Nairobi in December.

This current online consultation is designed to inform and influence the second Nexus Dialogue, which will take place during the High-Level Political Forum in New York from 13-14 July. On the 13th, technical experts will explore opportunities to strengthen the implementation of the SDGs at the country level by looking at PEN lessons learned and good practices. On the 14th, senior policy makers and practitioners will address explore options for strengthening PEN partnerships and how the UN system can advance this work including through the Environment Management Group (EMG).

This online moderated discussion will allow experts who are not able to attend the Dialogue to contribute and enrich its discussions through a broad range of country experiences. Inputs from this online discussion be presented in New York, as well as during the final Dialogue in Nairobi, and  inform broader efforts to identify practical strategies for integrating PEN approaches across the SDGs.

This online discussion will run from 1-31 July and will focus on the following three linked discussion areas:

1) Poverty-Environment Evidence:

What examples can you share of the two-way links between multidimensional poverty and environmental degradation? What groups are affected by poor management of natural resources? How are the livelihoods of women and men living in poverty linked to: ecosystems and biodiversity; sustainable land management; oceans and water; climate change mitigation and adaption, and chemicals?  

2) PEN Mainstreaming:   

How are PEN approaches already being used and integrated into public policy making and investments? How are countries addressing the Poverty-Environment Nexus in different contexts to advance the SDGs? What tools and methodologies are being used to collect and use PEN data; inform national, sectoral and local planning; influence SD financing; and better coordinate PEN work across sectors?

3) PEN Partnerships:  

What partnerships are being used to reduce poverty and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways? How are governments, civil society, the private sector and international community working together at the local, national, regional and global level? What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated?

We will spend about ten days on each of these discussion areas.

This consultation will be moderated by Anne Juepner, Director of the UNDP Global Policy Centre in Nairobi and Co-Director of the UNDP-UN Environment Poverty and Environment Initiative, and  Steve Waddell, a global expert on systems thinking, author, and a Principal at Networking Action: Organizing for the 21st Century.

To join the discussion, please add your comments below and please feel free to share this launch message across your networks.

We look forward to your insights and innovation!

Best regards,

Nik Sekhran

Anne Juepner • Director, UNDP Global Policy Centre on Resilient Ecosystems and Desertification, Co Director, Poverty-Environment Initiative at UNDP from Kenya Moderator

On behalf of Steve and myself, we very much welcome all participants to the second Dialogue on the Poverty-Environment Nexus to take place at the High-Level Political Forum in New York later on this month. This online moderated discussion will allow experts who are not able to attend the Dialogue in person to contribute and enrich its discussions through a broad range of country experiences. To start our discussion, we would like to invite your inputs around the first question on 'Poverty-Environment Evidence'.

Poverty is often defined by one-dimensional measures such as income. But poverty is multi-dimensional, comprising various aspects that constitute poor people's experience of exclusion and marginalization - such as inadequate living standards; lack of access to clean water, sanitation and sustainable energy; poor health; lack of income and access to productive resources such as land; and disempowerment.

Natural capital including land, forests, fisheries, water and biomass fuels is the principal source of development for many rural families and communities living in poverty: They provide income, social protection and employment. Unsustainable use of natural capital and climate change undermine these socio-economic benefits, as well as the environment itself, and are costing many countries dearly. In Africa, for instance, it is estimated that these costs amount up to 22 percent of total annual GDP.

Unsustainable natural capital use and climate change also affect women and men differently. The majority of rural women (a quarter of the total world population!) depend on natural resources and agriculture for their livelihoods. Their traditional responsibilities as food growers, water and fuel gatherers, and care givers connect them intimately to natural resources and the climate. This does not only make them especially vulnerable to environmental hardships but it also means that they possess the knowledge and skills critical to finding sustainable solutions to environmental problems.

The 2030 Agenda embodies the contributions of environmental and natural resource sustainability to socially inclusive growth, employment and livelihoods for women and men. The poverty-environment-development nexus, implied in the 2030 Agenda, calls for all of us to do things differently in order to see it fully implemented at country level.

Anne Juepner • Director, UNDP Global Policy Centre on Resilient Ecosystems and Desertification, Co Director, Poverty-Environment Initiative at UNDP from Kenya Moderator

My colleague, Isabell Kempf (PEI Co-Director, UNE) and I (PEI Co-Director, UNDP)would like to share with you some information regarding our joint United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI).

Who we are:

PEI was launched in 2005 to help countries integrate poverty-environment objectives into their development plans and policies. PEI’s overall aim is to bring about lasting institutional change and catalyze key actors to increase investment in pro-poor environmental and natural resource management.

The PEI works with government partners and other stake holders to raise awareness, influence policy making and strengthen the integration of the poverty-environment nexus into country level plans and budgets. As an inter-agency collaboration, the programme is able to draw on the comparative advantages of both UNDP and UNE. PEI is currently working in 22 countries across four regions, but more than 50 countries have requested the programme's services. Our new poverty-environment mainstreaming programme, entitled Poverty-Environment Action for Sustainable Development Goals (2018-2022), focusing on promoting quality investments to simultaneously improve the livelihoods, health and resilience of poor women and men to sustainably manage the environment and address climate change, is currently being developed and will build on PEI achievements. 

How we work:

Capacity building and the use of an integrated approach are at the heart of PEI’s mainstreaming efforts, which are mainly led by ministries of finance and planning in close coordination with sector ministries, such as environment and agriculture. This has resulted in improved integration of poverty-environment, climate and gender priorities as well as increased allocation of resources in development plans and programmes.

Strong government ownership and recognition of the effectiveness of PEI’s integrated approach have catalyzed additional in-country funding for PEI programmes. Thanks to PEI’s resource mobilization at the country level and contributions from UNDP and UNE, every US dollar contributed by PEI donors has generated at least 1 additional US dollar in support of the programme.

What we do in support of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

PEI is already supporting countries in implementation of the SDGs through the following tools and services:

  • Integrating poverty-environment, climate and gender objectives into national, sub national, sectoral and local development plans and budgets.
  • Establishing policy planning, cross-sectoral coordination mechanisms and fiscal processes that enable effective implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives that increase the resilience of the poor.
  • Undertaking public environmental expenditure reviews (PEER) and climate expenditure and institutional reviews (CPEIR) to provide guidance on expenditure and reallocate funds for poverty-environment objectives.
  • Conducting environmental, economic and social assessments of sector policies and plans to increase support to participatory development planning processes that are based on such integrated assessments.
  • Addressing equity and gender gaps, strengthening advocacy and the effective participation of target groups trough inclusive programming.
  • Formulating indicators, collecting data and conducting analyses to measure change towards pro-poor environmental sustainability in national and sub national monitoring systems tracking the implementation of the SDGs.
  • Mobilizing bilateral and private investment and domestic resources, and providing the tools and methodologies to support the management of private investment in natural resources, to ensure equitable benefit sharing through improved regulatory structures.
  • Collaborating with UN and other partners to conduct trainings on mainstreaming poverty-environment, climate and gender objectives into decision making, including through the Mainstreaming, Acceleration and Policy Support (MAPS) approach.
  • Working in synergy with other programmes such as Green Economy or Sustainable Consumption and Production to support SDG implementation.
  • For more resources you may explore www.unpei.org . The PEI handbook on “Mainstreaming Environment and Climate for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development" is available at http://www.unpei.org/sites/default/files/publications/PEI%20handbook-high%20res.pdf.

 

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

I'm particularly interested in supporting "transformations"...fundamental realignments in thinking and acting that are connected to substantial innovation. The PEN issue requires this for many, and many have also been developing transformational actions that reflect it. I have generally found there are three activities necessary for transformation: (1) experimenting to identify the "invention" in terms of approach that can involve physical technologies but certainly also involves social/structural ones (eg: projects/experiments/labs); (2) building capacity to spread the invention (eg: formal/informal communities of practice); and (3) creating structures to support application of the invention for the period of time necessary for it to become "dominant" (eg: powerful multi-stakeholder networks).

I look forward to hearing more about how people are approaching the PEN challenge!

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

One of my most profound experiences with the nexus issue was when I was engaged in Guatemala, with CARE framing a project around the "root causes of poverty". I chuckled at the framing...in systems thinking there are no "root" causes, but rather a dynamic number of interacting variables and issues. Participants (CARE staff in Guatemala and some they worked with) quickly came to challenge the framing in association with "poverty", and replaced it with supporting potentials/aspirations for happiness and fulfillment. Of course this reframing involves many issues other than poverty. The systems work led to participants identifying and engaging stakeholders in realizing their aspirations. The project activities included getting participants to interview people who they traditionally saw as "adversaries" such as the military and big business people. This led to not just insights about each other beyond initial stereotypes, but in some cases new work relationships around CARE's mission. A learning history is available here.

Anshul Bhamra • Manager at Development Alternatives from India

http://devalt.org/images/L2_ProjectPdfs/ClimateResilientFarmer_LEISA.pdf?Oid=166

This is a reflection to Question 1.

Bundelkhand region in India is one of the most economically, socially and environmentally vulnerable regions of the country. One of the reasons is high dependence on rain-fed farming in the region with poor soil quality and very poor water availability. With effects of climate change, it is only getting worse. The region is also the poorest in the living standards as well as decent lifestyle for the people of Bundelkhand. Any adverse effect on land, water availability or an improvement on both plays a key role in the poverty dynamics of the region. 

Read the story shared by the link for more information.

Alfredo Arturo Corredor Becerra • Asesor at Paramo savers from Colombia

Muy buen día a todos los participantes en estos importantes diálogos, soy Arturo Corredor Becerra he realizado un Master y un Doctorado en la Universidad Europea de Energía y Medio Ambiente con el apoyo financiero de Fondo Verde. Luego del mi trabajo en comunidad y el estudio teórico tengo clara la evidencia de la relación transversal de la Sostenibilidad en el futuro en paz del mundo.

Considerando a la Sostenibilidad como un modo de vida, es decir un paradigma cultural que la civilización del siglo XXI debe tomar para tener una oportunidad real de sobrevivir es decir no se trata de un tema enfocado a lo ambiental, sino como los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible lo muestran se trata de un tema transversal que incluye aspectos sociales, económicos, culturales, geográficos y por supuesto ambientales.

Se trata de una visión sistémica, multidimensional, colaborativa, cooperativa en donde países del sur y norte ponemos lo mejor de lo que tenemos buscando el beneficio general basados en el respeto de la dignidad, la equidad y los derechos humanos.

Para Colombia y los países que cuentan con un acervo natural representado en biodiversidad, servicios ecosistémicos y un patrimonio de conocimiento representado en conocimiento ancestral y cultural de los pobladores rurales deben ser valorados de manera integral y asignarles un reconocimiento global, este importante aporte de los países debe ser aceptado y fomentado en lugar de las actividades de tipo extractivo que han llevado a estos países a la pobreza y la dependencia económica.

El país tiene históricamente asignada la explotación de sus recursos naturales como proveedor de materias primas minerales y  son las regiones más pobres las que tienen los mayores indices de probreza y abandono como muchos de los estudios lo demuestran, el modelo extractivo debe ser cambiado.  Dentro del ejercicio que he realizado tube oportunidad de realizar una consulta con expertos del país que cohinciden en la anterior conclusión. 

Si se requieren evidencias con gusto las aportaré.

Un respetuoso saludo,

 

Alfredo Arturo Corredor Becerra 

 

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

Creo que por un lado estás hablando de cambiar lo que yo llamo la "metanarrativa" de nuestra civilización que enfatiza la importancia de la economía, con el resto del mundo a su servicio. Usted escribe específicamente que el patrimonio de conocimiento representado en conocimiento ancestral y cultural de los pobladores rurales debe ser valorado de manera integral y asignarles un reconocimiento global. ¿Puede dar ejemplos de cómo se puede hacer esto ... o mejor, dónde se está haciendo?

Alfredo Arturo Corredor Becerra • Asesor at Paramo savers from Colombia

Buenos días,  gracias por los comentarios. Efectivamente se trata de considerar a la Sostenibilidad como un paradigma civilizatorio, es  más amplio que el modo de producción realmente es “metanarrativa”  una manera de visionar el futuro de la humanidad a largo plazo, pues no solo se refiere al tema económico sino a una visión multidimensional, sistémica, holística. Se relaciona con  aspectos múltiples de la civilización humana la ética y la equidad, la visión cooperativa y colaborativa del mundo gestionando los recursos existentes considerando no solo en el beneficio de la generación actual sino en lo que dejaremos a las próximas generaciones, por ello se relaciona con el consumo responsable, la producción responsable de ciclo cerrado, el comercio justo, el manejo de los recursos naturales y los demás recursos como el conocimiento ya adquirido por la población de su entorno y que sirve además como medio para salir de la pobreza o mejorar la calidad de vida global.

En muchos de los países de la zona sur del globo terráqueo, existe la biodiversidad y las personas que llevan siglos sintiéndose parte de los ecosistemas que habitan, son poseedores de un conocimiento que no se está valorando y que en lugar de ello se malversa y eso ocurre a través de procesos de desplazamiento a los centros urbanos en busca de oportunidades y mejor calidad de vida.

La concentración de la población en unas pocas ciudades es un fenómeno marcado en Latinoamérica  y es la consecuencia de años de abandono y miseria el desplazamiento a las ciudades en donde su conocimiento no les permite ser competitivos pues su mano de obra no está calificada para mantener un modo de vida digno y los empuja  en trampas de pobreza del que difícilmente saldrán después de generaciones y aumentan la problemática socio económica y ambiental que alimentan ciclos viciosos que forma países insostenibles.

Estos planteamientos se encuentran descritos en un documento que elaboré denominado el

“Modelo Teórico de Bienestar Integral Sostenible para Colombia frente a la crisis global del siglo XXI”  cuya abreviatura es MoTBIS con el propósito de facilitar su recordación.

Dentro del soporte teórico se encuentran diferentes estudios en Colombia,  como los de Germán Márquez (2004, 2005, 2007), permitieron establecer entre otras las siguientes relaciones: Entre la calidad de vida de las poblaciones y el estado funcional de los recursos naturales, la demostración de la existencia  de concentración de la tierra por parte de reducidos grupos de terratenientes (legales o ilegales) como medio para controlar la mano de obra por la fuerza a través de la violencia y la pauperización de las condiciones de vida, que en consecuencia los campesinos se han desplazado a las ciudades o a lugares inaccesibles en las zonas rurales.   Esto ha conducido a que la vulnerabilidad y la pobreza se profundicen pues los desplazados rurales se suman al ejército de marginados de la ciudad y con ello se multiplican los ciclos viciosos de miseria que los empujan a las trampas de pobreza que durarán generaciones para superarlas.  Se identificaron los peligros de la concentración de la población vulnerable en las megalópolis que crecen de manera caótica. La importancia estratégica de la comprobación de la hipótesis radica en que, si el patrimonio natural y humano rural son el epicentro de la situación problema, en la actualidad, también pueden convertirse por decisión del país en el eje principal del plan estratégico frente a la crisis multidimensional del siglo XXI, que le permitirá a Colombia cerrar las brechas socio ecológicas, económicas, geográficas y culturales que posee y poder hacerse Sostenible.

A partir del análisis de ese escenario se propone buscar el Bienestar Integral Sostenible de la población alineando los planes estratégicos con los Objetivos del Milenio, con el plan estratégico global de manejo de biodiversidad de Aichi y la Política Nacional de Gestión de Biodiversidad y Servicios Ecosistémicos de Colombia.

Resultan pues estratégicos, la valoración del recurso humano rural que posee un conocimiento ancestral, y gestionar de manera integral la biodiversidad y los servicios ecosistémicos.  En cuanto al recurso humano su aporte es invaluable para proteger el territorio y recuperar la funcionalidad de los ecosistemas, así como el conocimiento de los campesinos y pescadores para la producción Sostenible de alimentos. Para lograrlo se requiere la estructuración de un mercado laboral rural que promueva la dignidad humana, incentivar la propiedad cooperativa de la tierra, fortalecer la infraestructura de servicios básicos rurales de calidad que les permitan suplir sus necesidades sin necesidad de abandonar sus terruños y garantizarles un uso real de sus derechos civiles contando con la presencia cercana del Estado.

Lo anterior permitirá cerrar las brechas multidimensionales, la reconstrucción del tejido social fracturado por el desplazamiento y la violencia, promover la solidaridad y la viabilidad del país.  Además si cuenta con ecosistemas funcionales permitirá: que el país se adapte de mejor manera al cambio climático, que se mejoren las condiciones de vida de los pobladores rurales generado relaciones sociales más equitativas, la mitigación de la pobreza y la disminución de la vulnerabilidad; para un mayor beneficio no solo del país sino del mundo dentro de la visión holística propuesta por la Sostenibilidad.

Un elemento que resulta trascendental, es que el MoTBIS implica la multiplicación de cadenas de valor que generan bienestar, a través del cambio en las prioridades productivas y la manera de gestionar los recursos. No se requiere aplicar el concepto planteado por la teoría del decrecimiento, se promueve el modelo del Bienestar integral desde la mayor inversión en los recursos más valiosos:  la naturaleza y la dignidad humana, se habla de  restaurar la biodiversidad, os ecosistemas estratégicos para generar más alimento, para garantizar más agua, mayor retención de gases efecto invernadero,  con base en el uso del conocimiento ancestral de la población rural, a través de la mayor inversión en la provisión de servicios básicos de calidad, generar la recuperación del Territorio, y posibilitar la provisión de mayor cantidad y calidad de bienes y servicios ambientales, apoyados en el cierre de las brechas sociales esto trae beneficios para los más vulnerables que trabajan para  mitigar los impactos del cambio climático que requiere el país y el mundo.  

La propuesta es crear gestionar el conocimiento ancestral, las habilidades y  de los pobladores de las regiones rurales y los diferentes ecosistemas apoyados con las herramientas tecnológicas con varios objetivos:

1.      Promover la protección y la recuperación de la biodiversidad para generar restaurar los ecosistemas deteriorados y generar ecosistemas funcionales para tener servicios ecosistémicos de calidad básicos como el agua, la captura de CO2, garantizar la seguridad alimentaria y mitigar los efectos del cambio climático para el consumo local y global para una población en constante crecimiento. 

 

2.      Brindar mejores condiciones de vida de la población rural, con el fin de mantener los ecosistemas que están generando los bienes y los servicios ecosistémicos que el mundo necesita. Como se haría? Una de las iniciativas es apoyar la reconstrucción de los ecosistemas afectados a través del conocimiento rural con programas de restauración, reforestación comunitario  remunerado, y creación de corredores ambientales que permitan la consolidación ecosistémica generando para ellos ingresos por realizar esas tareas con recursos internacionales.

 

3.      Una problemática es que las poblaciones de esas zonas representa los mayores niveles de pobreza multidimensional, porque se plantearía crear unos Nuevos Asentamientos Sostenibles (NAS) en los cuales puedan recibir servicios básicos de calidad como son salud, agua potable, educación en un entorno favorable. Para el caso de Colombia más del 70% de las poblaciones fueron fundadas antes del año 1700 y sus especificaciones técnicas de Sostenibilidad, resiliencia y adaptación al cambio climático son nulos, además de poseer por razones de evolución socio económica una gran dispersión de la población, factor que genera más inconvenientes para poder atender sus necesidades básicas por temas de costos. 

 

4.      Al construir y dotar las NAS  surgen oportunidades de empleo, específicamente para la dotación de servicios de calidad médicos en todas sus especialidades, quienes dispondrán con hospitales Estatales dotados de salas de cirugía para todos los niveles de   atención, laboratorios y centros de diagnóstico e imágenes de alta tecnología, Centros médicos  para atención médica, de urgencias y odontológicas al servicio de toda la comunidad de la zona de influencia del NAS. Igual sucede con los educadores y administradores de los centros de capacitación vocacional, normal, técnica y tecnológica, así como universidad y Centros de investigación e innovación.

 

Existen varias experiencias locales (municipios) que son exitosas pero aún no forman parte de políticas nacionales pues hay muchos intereses creados respecto de quienes son hasta hoy los propietarios de la tierra y los interesados en mantener en vigencia el modelo extractivo.  Son ejemplos de ello diferentes proyectos realizados por el Fondo Acción entre otros que pueden ser consultados en:  http://www.fondoaccion.org/es/multimedia

Sirven de ejemplo a las experiencias positivas les siguientes:

 

·         Proyecto regional de reconversión de la ganadería extensiva por ganadería Sostenible  con sistemas silvo pastoriles que representa menos terrenos dedicados a esta actividad e iniciar actividades alternativas como la restauración de ecosistemas, la producción de alimentos. Existen proyectos realizados exitosamente por  Fondo acción[1] .

 

 Actualmente se desarrolla un programa ampliado hasta el año 2018 cuyos recursos provienen de “financiación adicional del Reino Unido (DECC), que incorpora objetivos de mitigación de cambio climático y reducción de pobreza rural, amplió la cobertura a siete regiones con la inclusión de dos frentes de deforestación activa: (6) el área de bosque seco entre la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y la Serranía de Perijá; y (7) el área de piedemonte en la Serranía de la Macarena, Meta. En la Región Caribe está presente en:

Guajira: Riohacha, Barrancas, Fonseca, Distracción, San Juan del Cesar, El Molino, Villanueva, Urumita, San Diego. 

Cesar: Valledupar, Bosconía, Agustín Codazzi, San Diego, La Jagua de Ibirico, El Paso, Chiriguaná   Becerril, La Paz.  

Atlántico: Súan, Campo de la Cruz, San Estanislao.

Dentro del MOTBIS se recomienda entre otros programas:

 

·         Proyecto de reconversión de empresas dedicadas a la producción de cultivos industriales extensivos como la Palma Africana por cultivos de alimentos que aporten a la construcción de la soberanía alimentaria del país, ingresar a los programas de restauración reemplazando estos cultivos por bosques secos Tropicales  para recuperar los suelos y sus condiciones de calidad de los suelos, así como la biodiversidad y los servicios ecosistémicos. Especialmente dadas las condiciones de pérdida de mercado global ante la entrada en vigencia de sistemas alternativos de generación de energía, la caída de los precios internacionales y los resultados del impacto del cambio climático, entre otras razones.

 

[1] El proyecto “Mainstreaming Biodiversity into Sustainable Cattle Ranching in Colombia”, aprobado por el Banco Mundial y el Global Environment Facility GEF en 2010, apunta a la reconversión de la actividad ganadera mediante la incorporación de un enfoque de conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad. En 2010 el Fondo Acción se vincula como socio y cofinanciador de esta iniciativa piloto, en alianza con FEDEGAN - Fondo Nacional del Ganado, The Nature Conservancy y CIPAV. En 2014 el proyecto recibe una significativa inyección financiera adicional aportada por el gobierno del Reino Unido (Department of Energy and Climate Change DECC), que amplía sus objetivos y cobertura geográfica. http://www.fondoaccion.org/es/multimedia

Tina Cornely • Founder & CEO at Bridging Humanity from United States

I would like to answer section 3) PEN Partnerships:  

What partnerships are being used to reduce poverty and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways? The partnership most effective for me is impoverished highschools, public libraries, and/or teaching institutes (monasteries in countries Tibet, Nepal and India). In some cases where access to specific region is restricted (ie Borneo) I partner with groups like the World WildLife Fund via their community outreach projects. My target partners are educational institutions that are impoverished and resource lacking. My poverty reduction strategy empowers self sufficiency via a platform I authored titled 9 Steps to Eradicate Poverty (which is available in different languages and dialects). It is a How To/DYI book on how to address your basic needs (water purification/harvesting, hygiene/natural soaps, dry compost toilets, alternative medicine, family planning via the cycle bead system (including Zika mitigation/vector control), harness solar energy, build a non electrical refrigerator, and recycle trash to earn a living. In addition to this I provide teachers and librarians with links (including Bloom Library) to free instruction manuals, textbooks, etc. that can be downloaded and printed on site. This system has been very successful and enables locals to expand their libraries and teaching materials at their pace and tailored to their particular needs (in their language/dialect). How are governments, civil society, the private sector and international community working together at the local, national, regional and global level? Our work is based on public/private partnerships. Our formula is to target and get buy in from highschools (usually located in remote and impoverished areas). In turn the teachers we've trained present our model at yearly a yearly teachers' conference which facilitates further buy-in and eventually reaches Educational Dept. Heads. They in turn see the benefit and roll out this model country wide. What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated? Our trickle up project was implemented in Honduras. Now family planning (which was not taught before) coupled with Zika mitigation is becoming a part of their nation wide curriculum.  Our next step is to scale up our trickle up project by presenting our PEN project at the 3 different Latin American Conferences on Education where the Dept. Heads from the Caribbean, Central and South America attend. 

If we can get Latin American Heads of Education to be able to update, prepare, print & distribute their own text books and in their own language (including dialects), Latin America can become a springboard for other developing countries who are struggling with their lack of educational resources. The beauty of this model is it promotes buy-in, sustainability and replicability in the shortest time frame possible.

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Ashwini Sathnur • Capacity Development Expert at United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from India

1) Poverty-Environment Evidence:

What examples can you share of the two-way links between multidimensional poverty and environmental degradation? What groups are affected by poor management of natural resources? How are the livelihoods of women and men living in poverty linked to: ecosystems and biodiversity; sustainable land management; oceans and water; climate change mitigation and adaption, and chemicals?  

Changes in planetary conditions on Earth with respect to the sun due to solar flares lead to climatic changes.

Climate Change in the current decade has led to a variety of changes in the atmosphere, in water, on land and so on. These changes affect the neurological functioning of human brain. It could lead to disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease etc. The current technology usage in life-long neurological disorders is Neural Networks.

But it is found that climate change modifies the functioning of the nuclei in the neuron in the human brain. This brings about changes in the motion/ movement of nuclei. The size of the neuron is in dimensions of nano.  Such changes in each and every neuron, would lead to the change in the movement/ or distortion in the human brain as a whole. This is apparent when all the neurons – millions in count are aggregated into one unit – which is the human brain.

Hence this leads to the malfunctioning of the human brain caused due to it’s distortion.

 

2) PEN Mainstreaming:   

How are PEN approaches already being used and integrated into public policy making and investments? How are countries addressing the Poverty-Environment Nexus in different contexts to advance the SDGs? What tools and methodologies are being used to collect and use PEN data; inform national, sectoral and local planning; influence SD financing; and better coordinate PEN work across sectors?

Since the problem deals with nano dimensions, quantum mechanics comes into the picture.

Thus quantum mechanics concept is embedded with the neural systems.

Quantum mechanics dealing with neural systems comes under the umbrella of the subject Quantum Neural Networks.

The solution to the problem is a Quantum Neural Network Learning / Response Generation Mobile Application. It is created to enable the disabled person suffering from Parkinson’s / Alzheimer’s disease. And help that disabled person to understand the stimulus that he/she is looking at by his/her visual system. Once the stimulus is fetched from the disabled person – via his visual system [which he is looking at], it is processed in the biological neural network processing system within the mobile application.

And an output object is created which can be defined as a response to the stimulus. From the mobile application, this response is displayed to the disabled person. And then this response action is carried out by the disabled person.

Also a Quantum Neural Network Learning tutorial is played in an Animation format in the mobile application which explains the disabled person – about the disability, Neural Networks, Quantum Mechanics and Neural Networks, and the usage manual of the mobile application.

This leads to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and Inclusive Development. Hence the policies of Inclusive Development and Economic and Social Development applies to the areas addressing the concept of Poverty-Environment Evidence.

 

3) PEN Partnerships:  

What partnerships are being used to reduce poverty and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways? How are governments, civil society, the private sector and international community working together at the local, national, regional and global level? What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated?

Partnerships of international Capacity Building division and the public sector, private sector, educational institutions, research organizations, aerospace organizations, school curriculum establishment etc. leads to the creation of projects aiming to achieve the goals of Poverty-Environment Evidence.

Gale Mohammed-Oxley, OP • Managing Director at G.O International Academy of Learning from Trinidad and Tobago

I am happy to join this discussion as most of my experiences has a nexus approach to solving problems and decision making in finding the solution to the common good. Having grown up in Trinidad and Tobago with its multi cultural and multi ethnic population I believe solving many of the world's problems can find solutions in a nexus approach. My question here is: Are people permitted to use this approach?

Values Education at all levels can lay the foundation to sustainable development in the later years. A simple task of respecting another person's space (be it sacred or otherwise) can help draw peaceful solutions when they arise. Then we can see the source is the training of teachers. But what are teachers to teach? Who develops the curriculum, when we are told to prepare persons for the workplace.

Economics drive solutions and until we can shape economies to be flexible and fluid in safe passage there will always be the need for review and concern for the poor, the vulnerable and the victims. One victim group are the Warao Nation of First People in Trinidad. 

The two-way link between multidimensional poverty and environmental degradation can be seen in the desecration and distruction of their sacred ground of the San Fernando Hill (known as Sacred Mountain to the Warao First Peoples). The demand for Argillite aggregate for construction led  to the expansion of mining to the point where a hill point remained. The poor management on the part of the government and their agencies (in this case the San Fernando Regional Corporation) have permitted the mining of this mountain to the extent of depleting it as a natural resource.

Over the years from 1890s to 1977 there was mining of the hill without some form of sustainable land management system. The erosion of the hill included authorised excavation up to 2014 to an established area however, this was violated and only provoked a letter from the government.

The establishment of state agencies to manage the Hill which is now a park excluded the Warao Nation. Thus the call now for their rights to sovereignty of the Hill and a stop to any and all further mining. 

Dr. Amb. Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua
Dr.Amb.Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua • President and Founder of Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua Foundation at Asabe Shehu Yar'Adua Foundation from Nigeria

(Section 3) PEN Partnerships: 

What Partnerships are being used to reduce poverty and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways?

Poverty is indeed multidimensional. The inter-linkage between environment and poverty can hardly be over emphasized. The more visible environmental problems are mostly associated with regenerative resources, which are in constant danger of exhaustion from excessive use particularly in the developing countries.

 Depletion of many environmental resources can indeed make some categories of people destitute even when an economy is growing. So there is an intimate relationship between environmental degradation and accentuation of destitution. Poor women and children are particularly victims of environmental degradation although they are not necessarily the polluters. They are mostly forced to face an adverse environment with significant implications for their deprivation. They also suffer from malnutrition and ill health with further impact on income erosion.

Therefore, common and mutually interlinked issues of poverty eradication and environmental protection are the major concerns of many Developing and Developed countries. However, the institutional incapacity to eradicate poverty in environmentally degraded regions particularly in Developing and Under-Developing countries is yet to be fully understood

The issue of poverty in Developed, Developing, and Under Developing Countries has been in the front burner globally for a long time. A lot of efforts have been made to address poverty by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and International bodies like UN, ECOSOC, UNESCO. etc.

These International bodies have tried to reduce poverty in the war-torn counties like Somalia, Eritrea, Syria, Sudan, Libya etc. The partnership mostly effective for me is impoverished Children, Youths and Women (mostly war victims) in the affected Countries in the world. I partner with groups like DPINGO, UNDISR, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNODC, UNFCCC, UNAIDS and Observers to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

My target partners are women, Children, Youths, and the aged (elderly). My strategy to reduce poverty is to empower Women and Youths by creating vocational Centers for them to acquire skills that will make them to be self-reliant and self-sufficient. Also, I provide scholarship scheme to positively impact more on Youths, who are in dire need of education such as Indigent Students, who are financially constraints.

I am fully determined to enhance the livelihood of the people in the Rural Areas by the provision of viable goods and materials to the grassroot and to bring back hope to the down-trodden.

How are governments, civil society, the private sector and international community working together at the local, national, regional and global level?

 Governments, Non-Governmental Organizations, Civil Societies, Private Bodies and International Communities should work in synergy to improve the welfare of people especially the less-privileged by donating generously to homes of the abandoned Children and old people’s homes. Government should create an enabling environment for jobs creation for the teeming unemployed Youths.

UNDP, on the other hand, helps countries in their efforts to achieve sustainable human development by assisting them to build up their capacity to design and carry out development programmes in the fields of poverty eradication, employment creation and sustainable livelihoods, the empowerment of women and the protection and regeneration of the environment.

In all these efforts of UNDP, poverty eradication gets the top-most priority. Besides UN Secretariats and other subsidiaries, commissions organize conferences, workshops, help different parties to come together for global treaties and conventions in favour of environmental protection and Human Development. UNDP’s role in financing important initiatives for strengthening bio-diversity deserves to be especially appreciated.

A number of NGOs too have been taken onboard by the UN to push the poverty reduction and environmental protection agendas across the globe. Even corporations have been drawn into ECOSOC by the UN to sensitize those international companies to play pro-poor and pro-environmental role while doing their businesses.

Other multilateral agencies like Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Bank, and bilateral and regional agencies like UK Department for International Development (DFID) and European Community (EC) are also playing pro-active role towards pro-poor, pro-environment development interventions through both government and non-government organizations.

 The International Institutions like International Monetary Funds (IMF) should assist in providing grants and invest heavily in Energy sector that will invigorate the industrialization in those countries. This of course, will pave way for Economy recovery and reduction of poverty level.

What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated?

 Community initiatives are thought to be the best options for regenerating community resources to both eradicate poverty and help sustain environment. However, such initiatives may not be forthcoming in a country where vested interest groups too often vitiate governance.

Therefore, Communities’ initiative programmes should be replicated in other communities of the Developed, Developing and Under-Developing Countries so as to sustain Poverty reduction and guarantee self –reliant and self-sufficient in the shortest possible time.

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Gary Shapiro • Co-founder and committee chiar at statistics without borders from United States

Statistics Without Borders provides completely free statistical and data help to non-profit organizations. We can provide assistance to the Poverty-Environmental Initiative  in "Formulating indicators, collecting data and conducting analyses to measure change..." as discussed by Anne Juepner above. We can assist in evaluating the effectiveness of the programs done by Bridging Humanity and other organizations. We work on anyything involving the analysis or collection of data. We have a membership of well over 2,000 statisticians. Please respond to this comment, or email me directly at g.shapiro4@live.com if you would like to discuss how Statistics Without Borders might be able to provide free assistance to your organization. You can view our website at www.community.amstat.org/statisticswithoutborders/home

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

Statistics provide a valuable way to communicate change. What are the current challenges and limitations with statistics and data-gathering systems that inhibit their power to communicate?

Michael Stanley-Jones • Programme Management Officer at UN Environment from Kenya

How does better evidence lead governments to strengthen policies for the marginalized and the poor, as well as for the environment?

At the day-long Environment Management Group Nexus Dialogue Series’ second dialogue on “Enabling new partnerships- implementing the Sustainable Development Goals at the poverty-environment nexus at country level”, held on Thursday, 13 July, during the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, in New York, I addressed this question in a presentation that examined the 2016 UN Environment Gender Global Environment Outlook, and 2015 report, The Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda.

The latter work, a joint product of a partnership between UN Women, UNDP–UN Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative and The World Bank, has already helped recast the Government of Malawi’s national agricultural policy (2016), to make it more sensitive to women farmers, while also giving greater attention to sustaining natural resources upon which the poor depend for a large share of their subsistence.

In a new report, Accelerating Sustainable Development in Africa, published last month by Poverty-Environment Initiative Africa, the authors found that “inspired by integrated evidence, Malawi’s new national agricultural policy (2016) has a strong focus on women’s empowerment and sustainable agriculture.” That policy states, “Closing the gender gap and addressing the socio-economic barriers faced by women and the youth has the potential to boost annual agricultural GDP [Gross Domestic Product].”

These objectives will be achieved, the authors say, “by promoting women’s access to, ownership of and control over productive and financial resources and enhanced opportunities for entrepreneurship and participation in agriculture value addition.”

Rarely has economic research translated so quickly and directly into a new national policy.

The key message from the Malawi experience is that, when an individual sector – in this case, agriculture - understands how the unsustainable use of the environment has a negative impact on its own sector targets and broader social equality and economic goals, the motivation to adopt an integrated approach to environmental, social and economic development can be high and its uptake accelerated.

See Accelerating Sustainable Development in Africa: Country lessons from applying integrated approaches on www.unpei.org

 

 

 

 

 

Michael Stanley-Jones • Programme Management Officer at UN Environment from Kenya

In the recent Nexus dialogue on poverty and environment, I highlighted one of the five pathways recommended in Accelerating Sustainable Development in Africa, the new report by Poverty-Environment Initiative Africa.  Pathway 1: Better evidence, and the experiences of the application of integrated evidence to policymaking for sustainable development in Burkino Faso, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania covered in the report, show how credible, sector-specific evidence linking the three dimensions of sustainable development with sector goals and targets can be particularly effective in overcoming barriers and challenges to government action.

The case of Malawi's new national agricultural policy (2016) illustrates three ways of weaving research into policymaking for speedy impact. First, generate the evidence through the machinery of government. This can be done through partnerships with government agencies and local research institutes. Their involvement helps create ownership of the products of the research.

Second, ensure the research is interdisciplinary, and engages with target audiences, in particular government officials and marginalized groups. The Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda (2015), the joint research report of UN Women, UNDP-UN Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative and the World Bank, was accompanied by extensive outreach to policymakers at national level.

Third, disseminate the results strategically, through media, private sector and civil society, and community organizations. This further builds a constituency for the findings and recommendations of the research.

UN Environment, one of the four partners, has an advocacy role among UN institutions, one that commits us to close another kinds of gap -- the one between Science and Policy. The Cost of the Gender Gap illustrates how by connecting economic analysis with discrete policy recommendations, researchers can  give government policymakers clear information on where to find solutions, in this case to increasing the productivity of women-led farms.

Increasing women-led farms productivity requires interventions to enable women to employ more male labour power. Without addressing this constraint, other interventions, such as increasing women's access to improved seed stock, would have only relatively marginal impact. Policy needs to focus first on the critical factors.

See The Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda (2015) at www.unpei.org

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Gary Shapiro • Co-founder and committee chiar at statistics without borders from United States

One of the disciplines needed in the research is statistics. Statistics Without Borders would be happy to form partnerships with appropriate government agencies and local research institutes. Note that we have members worldwide, including many of the countries that you mention. See my message above for more information on Statistics Without Borders, and email me (g.shapiro4@live.com) so we can discuss ways that Statistics Without  Borders can help.

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

Michael is providing a marvellous example of how to strengthen change approaches grounded in a theory of change that new "knowledge" and "awareness" can be a big force in connecting poverty and environmental issues. He illustrates, however, that on their own, these are not enough. They must be integrated into an impact strategy -- it's not just producing a recipe book, but it's about situating the development of the recipes amongst the users so they understand them and they're relevant; and that it's necessary to build support for the change amongst the broader public for it to advance.

While such knowledge-based strategies can be successful where there is an openness to new knowledge and awareness, is this always the case? If there is simply a powerful stakeholder group that ignores the knowledge, what do you do?

Anne Juepner • Director, UNDP Global Policy Centre on Resilient Ecosystems and Desertification, Co Director, Poverty-Environment Initiative at UNDP from Kenya Moderator

A big THANK YOU to all who have shared their insights and experiences in this dialogue thus far! While the first part of our discussion focused on generating the necessary Poverty-Environment Evidence, let us now look into more detail at bringing the Poverty-Environment Nexus into the mainstream of policy action.

We also realize that implementing PEN in praxis cannot happen without various stakeholders coming together in proactive partnerships - the above testimonies from Tina, Ashwani, Gale, Asabe and Michael are clearly illustrating this.

So, please feel free to also share with us examples of effective PEN Partnerships that you have encountered or helped forge in your work!

I am particularly  interested in better understanding how we can successfully engage the Private Sector in this context.

We look forward to hearing from you what innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated!

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

UNESCO aims to improve access to quality education on sustainable development at all levels and in  all social contexts, to transform society by reorienting education and help people develop knowledge, skills, values and behaviors needed for sustainable development. It is about including sustainable development issues such as climate change and biodiversity into teaching and learning, individuals are encouraged to be responsible actors who resolve challenges, respect cultural diversity and contribute to creating a more sustainable world.

Pilar Roman • PEI Programme Officer at UN Environment Programme from Panama

Dear all, I would like to join the discussion and share experience on private sector partnership.

The Initiative Poverty-Environment in Peru is working in the waste management sector, specifically with recyclers. Currently, 7,000,000 tons of solid waste are generated in the country, half of which ends up in unplanned areas, impacting public and environmental health. It is estimated that 75% of these residues are re-usable.

Approximately in Peru, 100,000 people rely on recycling as their income source, either formally (5%) or informal (95%). Recyclers are an economically and socially marginalized group, in part due to the lack of awareness of the value of their work to society. The profile of the group of recyclers is 66% of women, of whom 70% are between 30 and 59 years old, 46% are street recyclers, 49% spend between 21 and 40 hours a week, 20% are illiterate and 19% live below the poverty line. Most women recognize that their link to recycling is due to economic needs, and street recycling is their main source of income. (female formalized recycler presents her life experience at the national forum last June)

The work of these women is key in the reduction of waste in dumps, streets, canals and streams of water thus allowing recyclable waste to enter the production chain again and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and avoid spending on natural resources, such as energy, water and raw materials. Similarly, this activity reduces municipal waste transportation costs and extends the life of landfills. But, above all, these women contribute to the generation of a culture of environmental care in the population.

The project has worked synergistically with other sectors, both at national and subnational level, such as the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Women, the Ministry of Labor, and municipalities, fostering a gradual formalization of recyclers, strengthening their capacities for their insertion in the competitive recycling market and generating quality jobs, empowering women, at the level of self-esteem and economic, and generating conditions to ensure greater participation in decision-making about their livelihoods.

Currently, the Ministry of Environment is designing a pilot model to maximize the benefits of the recycled material value chain, interconnecting all stakeholders of the recycling sector: Bringing recyclers closer to companies that use solid waste as raw material or use products that contain a proportion of recycled material in their composition. 

Generating a more efficient and fairer nework for recycled material, reducing intermediaries, positioning recyclers as key players in this value chain, and thus fostering the formalization and association of this sector. 

 

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Did you know that, Higher education is rapidly expanding, diversifying, and attracting more students than ever before. At the same time only 1per cent of the poorest are spending more than four year's in higher education, compared to 20 per cent of the richest. According to a recent analysis by IIEP and UNESCO's Global Education Monitoring Report. This edition of the IIEP Letter explores what is needed to enable higher education to fully play its control new role in the Sustainable Development Agenda.

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Thamsanqa Robert Ncube • from South Africa

Eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions represents not only the greatest global challenge but also an indispensible requirement for sustainable development. The quest for mutually supportive transformative policies in this context is essential poverty eradication ensures a basic standard of living for all and facilitates efforts aimed at preventing environmental degradation and protecting the global environmental commons. Many countries today are exploring pro - poor social policies with incentives to promote to promote sustainability. Fighting poverty and building the resilience of people living in poverty to economic, social and environmental shocks are key tasks on the road to sustainable.

Sven Wunder • Principal Economist at Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) from Peru

Here a bit from our work, spanning from the poe-env evidence to upscaling to the policy level, with focus on forests in developing countries: 

1)    Poverty - Environment Evidence

The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) has challenged conventional wisdom about the role of forests in rural household economies through its Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) global study.  At the core of this study, which was launched in 2004, is the tropics-wide collection of uniform socio-economic and environmental data collected from a broad sample of around 8,000 households in 24 countries.  Data collection includes a careful recording of all forest and environmental uses to quantify the overall importance of environmental income to rural livelihoods in developing countries.

Highlights from the global study include: 

·      Livelihoods:  Income from natural forests and other natural areas accounted for 28% of total household income, nearly as much as crops.

·      Gender:  Both women and men collect forest products predominantly for subsistence. On a global level, women collect about the same amount of unprocessed forest products as men do, while men are responsible for more processed products.

·      Safety nets:  When households had to respond to crises such as crop failures, job losses or illnesses, only 8% extracted more from forests as a prime coping strategy. More frequently-utilized strategies involved finding other employment, selling assets, reducing consumption, and seeking help from others.

·      Forest clearing:  Households with medium to high asset holdings and higher market orientation were more likely to clear forest than the poorest and market-isolated households.

·      Tenure:  State forests generated more income than private or community forests. Not surprisingly, higher enforcement in state-owned forests was found to have negative associations with smallholder forest income, as was limiting user rights to formal users.

In the last couple of years, we have together with FAO, the World Bank and others developed a sourcebook and a forestry questionnaire where information gathering on these issues can be upscaled to the national level. A first pilot has happened in Turkey, while others are forthcoming.   

For full articles and more information about the project, visit CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network website: www.cifor.org/pen 

 

Steve Waddell • Principal, Networking Action at Networking Action from United States Moderator

Thanks for pointing to this valuable resource, Sven. Can you point to a couple of actions that may have arisen from the data? I see you have created a partnership in data-gathering...do the actions typically require multi-stakeholder partnerships or are there any other qualities that can be found associated with actions?

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Gary Shapiro • Co-founder and committee chiar at statistics without borders from United States

Can you use any help in analyzing the data you have collected through your Poverty and Environment Network global study? If so, Statistics Without Borders can provide such help. Please email me at g.shapiro4@live.com and see my earlier message for more information about Statistics Without  Borders.

Michael Stanley-Jones • Programme Management Officer at UN Environment from Kenya

This contribution was submitted by Ambrose Mugisha, United Nations Development Programme International Technical Advisor with the Ministry of Finance and Planning, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 

Tanzania experience: Environment Management Group Dialogue on Poverty-Environment Nexus

Introduction

The paramount importance and contribution of environment and natural resources to local livelihoods and national economic growth in Tanzania cannot be overemphasised. Over 70% of people still live in rural areas and 80% of people depend on agriculture and natural resources for their daily needs[[i]], a clear case of natural capital and assets continuously facilitating poverty reduction, livelihood improvement and national economic growth. Yet, environmental degradation and natural resources depletion seems to continue to happen. For example, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP 2015[[ii]]) estimated deforestation rates ranging from 130,000 to 500,000 ha per annum. Moreover, as Tanzania aspires to attain the middle income country status, increasing economic growth to enhance economic transformation and human development, as contained in her National Five Year Development Plan 2016/17–2020/21, It is most likely that there will be increased reliance on the environment and natural resources which might in turn exacerbate environmental degradation and ultimately poverty conditions of the rural poor who depend largely on the environmental resources if not managed well.

1) Poverty-Environment Evidence:

Through Poverty-Environment Initiative supported nature-based community livelihood improvement enterprises, there has been considerable evidence generated to the effect that at local level, where local populations directly depend on access and use of environment and natural resources, nature-based resources play an important role in ensuring social, economic and environmental resilience. This was revealed by a Costs Benefits Analysis study of the joint United Nations Development Programme–United Nations Environment Programme Poverty-Environment Initiative supported livelihoods improvement interventions in six districts in Tanzania.

The costs benefits analysis study report concludes that of the livelihood interventions being promoted, aquaculture has the highest Net Present Value of Tanzanian Shilling (TSh) 7.9 billion (fish cage and fish ponds) followed by apiculture at TSh 1.26 billion. The report further shows that the livelihood interventions have diverse socio-economic and environmental impacts such as reduced incidents of illegal fishing due to introduction of fish ponds and cages; and reduced deforestation emanating from households use of biogas as source of energy for cooking and lighting. The costs benefits analysis also shows that livelihood interventions on fish farming and beekeeping had a positive impact on women’s economic empowerment and ability to provide for the household. Previously, these were male dominated activities that women could not engage in; but this has changed; indicating a beginning change of mind set and practices towards more equal access to economic opportunities

Moreover, a study report by UN Environment (2015)[[iii]] on forests ecosystems services towards green growth, highlighted that sustainable management of natural environmental resources contribute immensely to poverty reduction, livelihoods sustenance and economic growth (Gross Domestic Product). It is on this basis that the National Five Year Development Plan II estimates that sustainable utilization of natural resources (forest, water and marine resources, etc.) will contribute 10% of Gross Domestic Product by 2020/21 and 20% by 2025/6.

The report further highlights that environmental degradation will contribute to huge economic and social loses to Tanzania. The report estimates that deforestation will lead to present value of net losses of TSh 273 billion (approximately US$ 121.7 million) over a period of 2013–2033 to the Tanzania economy.

These figures and evidence strengthens the advocacy efforts to galvanise the need to mainstream poverty-environment linkage objectives and the role of natural capital in national development planning and budgeting processes for poverty reduction and economic growth.

2) Poverty-Environment Nexus Mainstreaming:

Experience in Tanzania has demonstrated that integrating poverty-environment linkage objectives and environmental and natural resources sustainability into national and sub-national policies and plans enhance community economic, social and environmental resilience through innovative approaches such as climate smart and inclusive development approaches as aspired by the Sustainable Development Goals philosophy of Leaving no one behind. This is reflected in different approaches and national development frameworks and processes that aim at harnessing natural capital investment for poverty reduction, livelihoods improvement and human development.

For example, the Tanzania Development Vision 2025 puts emphasis on use of natural capital / natural resources for poverty reduction. The Tanzania National Five Year Development Plan II 2016/17–2020/21 places greater emphasis and sets clear targets on the sustainable natural resources management, environment and climate change (National Five Year Development Plan II; pp 58-59) including plans to introduce an Environmental Sustainability Index as part the Monitoring and Evaluation plan for economic development projects. The Sustainable Development Goals are considered as an integral part of the Local Economic Development approaches of the National Five Year Development Plan II to foster an all-inclusive development approach to ensure micro-level poverty reduction, jobs creations and human development based on use of locally available natural resources through promotion of nature-based enterprises and Value Chain Analysis for natural resources.

As part of the Sustainable Development Goals localization, Ministry of Finance and Planning (through the Poverty Eradication Division, Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics) is focussing on integrating appropriate and relevant Sustainable Development Goal indicators within the comprehensive Poverty Monitoring Master Plan and the National Monitoring and Evaluation Systems for monitoring the implementation of the poverty status Local Economic Development component of the National Five Year Development Plan II and the Sustainable Development Goals. The Poverty Monitoring Master Plan and National Monitoring and Evaluation Systems also include monitoring of performance of sectoral and sub-national level policies and plans in addressing poverty issues in a multi-dimensional manner. The cardinal attention is to mainstream Sustainable Development Goals in the implementation system of Five Year National Development Plan 2016/17–2020/21; ensuring that Sustainable Development Goals indicators and targets are aligned to monitoring indicators in the national MES and poverty monitoring systems.

Based on the assessment so far, only 102 indicators of 282 indicators of the National Five Year Development Plan II (36 %) correspond with the Sustainable Development Goals indicators either fully or partially; meaning that there still is work to be done to attain 100 % alignment between National Five Year Development Plan II and the indicators. This will be achieved through and on-going support to the National Bureau of Statistics to develop a Sustainable Development Goals Data Roadmap to monitor the Goals and to establish an Sustainable Development Goals data Visualisation open portal / Dashboard. The idea behind the Sustainable Development Goals open data visualisation portal is to enable a multitude of stakeholders and actors including private sector, civil society researchers, academicians etc. to contribute to Sustainable Development Goals mainstreaming into national and sub-national plans and programmes are implemented and monitored in an integrated manner. This will require strengthening the data ecosystems underpinned by reliable disaggregated data and a stronger focus on ending exclusion as a key to attaining data revolution and the “leaving no one behind” aspiration of the Agenda 2030.

The 2030 Agenda and environmental sustainability efforts in the country are being fostered by Government attention to improving the policy environment by reviewing and updating relevant policies. Examples of policies reviewed include National Environment Policy, National Fisheries Policy, and in process to update National Forestry Policy to ensure compliance to environmental standards and environmental sustainability requirements; principally putting Sustainable Development Goal 1 on Poverty at the centre of inter-sectoral co-ordination for enhancing human development agenda of the FYDP II. This was exemplified in the recent national and subnational consultations for compiling the Sustainable Development Goals Baseline Report as part of the process for Poverty Monitoring Master Plan and National Monitoring and Evaluation Systems formulation that will ultimately benchmark national Sustainable Development Goals monitoring and reporting.

A cardinal principle for integrating Sustainable Development Goals and poverty-environment linkage objectives in the development planning, budgeting and implementation processes is pro-active, evidence-based engagement in these processes. Further, to highlight to decision-makers how ensuring effective and sustainable use of natural resources through a coherent policy framework supports the achievement of key national development objectives – which will accelerate Tanzania’s progress to middle income country status by 2025.

3) Poverty-Environment Nexus Partnerships and Financing for Development:

The Development Partners Group on Environment in Tanzania has been an important forum for sharing and advocating poverty-environment linkage objectives in the national policy dialogue processes. The Development Partners Group on Environment provided considerable input to the National Environment Policy review process and engagement with the Vice President Office Department of Environment (DoE) on a number of environment management related issues including the formulation of the Environment Management Strategic Plan for the Department of Environment under the Vice President Office.

Financing for pro-poor development remains a critical agenda and is core to Poverty-Environment Initiative advocacy for inclusive growth and Sustainable Development Goals localisation in Tanzania. Based on the new National Five Year Development Plan II that provides a strong focus on local level economic development, government has emphasised increasing the national development budget. For example, the development budget has been increasing over the last two financial years after onset of the National Five Year Development Plan II 2016/17–2020/21. It increased from 26% to 32% in FY 2016/17; and to 38% in the 2017/18 to stimulate local economic development and poverty reduction through sustainable use of natural resources.

In the financial year 2016/17, government substantially increased it’s budgetary allocation to environmental management compared to the previous two years. Out of the total vote for the Vice President Office budget of US$ 3,656,560 (TSh 8 billion) for 2016/17, a total of US$ 2,056,815 (TSh 4.5 billion), 56.25%, is earmarked for environmental management programme as compared to US$ 548,484 (TSh 1.2 billion) in 2015/16 and US$ 159,974 (TSh 350 million) in 2014/15 (see figure on next page).[[iv] and [v]] [ref. Public Expenditure Estimates Development Vote, Part A -Vol. IV). In the same spirit, government has operationalized the National Environment Trust Fund as one of the funding options for implementation of the national FYDP II. The Poverty-Environment Initiative will continue to vigorously work to influence substantial allocation of the National Environment Trust Fund and others funds to the implementation of the Local Economic Development component of the National Five Year Development Plan II that focusses on local community level poverty reduction and livelihoods improvement.

 

[i] URT (2009): How Tanzania’s Natural Resources contribute to Poverty Reduction? An analysis of MKUKUTA outcomes (2005-2009) related to forest and wildlife resources as a contribution to the MKUKUTA review. Tanzania Natural Resource Forum with TRAFFIC; Policy Brief 10.09 December 2009. http://www.policyforum-tz.org/files/Mkukutabrief.pdf

[ii] UNEP (2015): Forest Ecosystems in the Transition to a Green Economy and the Role of REDD+ in the United Republic of Tanzania.

http://theredddesk.org/sites/default/files/resources/pdf/tanzania_report.pdf

[iii] UNEP (2015): Forest Ecosystems in the Transition to a Green Economy and the Role of REDD+ in the United Republic of Tanzania

http://theredddesk.org/sites/default/files/resources/pdf/tanzania_report.pdf

[iv] Source: Public Expenditure Estimates Development Vote (Part A -Vol. IV)

[v] Full citation: The United Republic of Tanzania Public Expenditure Estimates Development Vote, Part A -Vol. IV) for the year 1st July, 2016 to 30th June, 2017, as submitted to the National Assembly.

 

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

At the out set let me thank you for inviting me to contribute on ‘The Nexus Dialogue’,

which are taking place during the High-Level Political Forum in New York from

13-14 July.

 Poverty-Environment Nexus (PEN).

  1. Poverty-Environment Evidence:What examples can you share of the two-way links

between multidimensional poverty and environmental degradation?

Ans-Over last 40 years i had built cement plants,steel plants,marine works,

marine off shore works,and designed and constructed Water works,Irrigation

works across India,Nepal.Some Refinery and waste water disposal works in

Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.I had taught students at Ethiopia.

Civilization needs modifications to suit the needs of people.The word Engineering has

come in to place after finding a practice useful for many.

Many communities relay on land,but look for water as a source for ripening the

produce.Water as source is needed for livelihood,and then the shelter.

The produce needs to be sold.That shall generate income.Then comes education,

and living standards.

The cycle is set in.

But in the process we find things which have emerged new and which were never

contemplated.

That is land degradation,salt penetration,sea fish and fresh water fish not

living together.

Then we find it smells with fish.

Fisheries areas shall be relocated.

The fodder from produce,out of crop is to be disposed.Innovation and

motivations are needed.

My novels speak of my experiences,the list is below.

2) PEN Mainstreaming: How are PEN approaches already being used and integrated

into public policy making and investments?

Ans-We contemplate based on set international standards to grow more plants

Generate more oxygen.Use good cooling towers for power plants.Use

Chimneys up to 100 meter height or above near hill to send the fumes.

We use electro- static- precipitation for settling dust.

But they do not work.

Some youth leaders take money for non compliance.

The near by at Cell towers gets effected[read my 2025 novel-it is free].

The new laws needs to be made.

The governments needs to be motivated that changing environments

Produce new microbes,which can be health hazard.

Mosquito are the main carriers for many new generation diseases.

3] PEN Partnerships: What partnerships are being used to reduce poverty

and ensure more inclusive and environmentally sustainable development pathways?

Ans-Keeping health as a concern,and going for Smart cities,and

having smart transport systems,the Governments are trying to overcome the

needs of growing population.This also is the need to meet the growing urbanization.

Keeping communication channels from many sources,hour and day,discussing in

many platforms trying to attend productivity,livelihood,employment,regenerate

education to be effective addressable to modern day with content on society and

the laws of nature.

-

Optimistically my novels contain the real experiences on environment,

Engineering,climate,melting of ice,construction near seas and oceans

[1]https://www.scribd.com/document/329201844/2025-Diamond-Treasure-Islands

[2]https://www.scribd.com/doc/291090713/Nani-Novel

[3]https://www.scribd.com/doc/284539534/9202020

These are free-fiction,novels.They are based on Engineering,life and lives of many

In the societies.

Q-What innovative forms of PEN collaboration can be scaled up and replicated?

Address society,find living systems.Protect them while giving livelihood.

The life of yester years need not be replicated as modern systems changes.

Have moderators to help you.

 

 

Deo Dubey • Manager Program at Ipas from India

First of all I would like to thank you for involving me in The Nexus Dialogue. I would like to share my experience. The issues related to health including of sexual and reproductive system, HIV and AIDS including comprehensive abortion care directly affects human mortality and morbidity but on the other hand its adverse effects to the poverty and environment can easily be observed.

This is well known fact that people living in rural and difficult to reach areas expend more time and money in getting health care facilities and sanitation in open cause poverty and environment pollution. Government of India has initiated National Rural Health Mission and Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan to address these issues. These initiatives achieved the set objectives significantly. But with a view to make it more comprehensive and sustainable, social inclusion with decentralization of accountability is highly needed. The small social organization like village panchayats, local community groups should come forward to take the initiative.  

Working population is generally called human resource of the country. With the development of urban areas more and more urban slums are being developed on the outskirts the city. Due to expensive health facilities in the private hospitals, proper sanitation facility and comparatively fast growing slum population it will be quite difficult to balance the equation. Development of small town clusters with proper connectivity to nearby rural areas require to initiate.    

Saripalli Suryanarayana • from India

Several Laws needs to be made by the countries.[1]Protecting-LGBT [Lesbian,Gay,Bisexual and Transexual] Rights.

[2]Making it madetory for all Individual pumpsets for Irrigation,to have 100% susidized Solar power[with storage batteries].

[3]Making drip irrigation a system for crop growth,thus saving water for human consumption.[My guide line paper to FAO -not published by them-is enclosed].

[4]Enhancing modern rainwater Gauges,and measurement of rain and ground water,and thus increasing storage capacities.

[5]Treating and using waste waters from cities/industries.Avoiding salt water intrusion at Easteries[confluence of river and sea or bay]

Michael Stanley-Jones • Programme Management Officer at UN Environment from Kenya

This contribution is submitted on behalf of Moa Westman, Regional Advisor, Poverty-Environment Initiative Africa

The joint UNDP‒UN Environment Poverty-Environment Initiative and UN Women have in Eastern and Southern Africa had a substantive technical and financial partnership both at the regional and country level since 2014.

The partnership has included collaboration around capacity building for policy makers on the links between gender-environment and sustainable development and policy relevant research on the gender-environment nexus with a focus on agriculture, energy and climate.

For example, a groundbreaking study had been produced together with the World Bank, The Cost the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, in 2015. The study is now being replicated in Rwanda and Ethiopia but also taken forward in the three original countries to also look more in depth on the link to climate resilient and gender responsive approaches.

The partnership has through these work streams contributed to bridging data gaps on the links between gender equality and environmental sustainability in key natural resource sectors. It is also contributing to important policy changes, for example, Malawi’s new National Agriculture Policy adopted in 2016 includes a focus on gender equality, women’s empowerment and climate resilience with a view to close to gender gaps in the sector.


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